Milena McLaughlin, How do antimicrobial shortages differ between high and low income countries, Contagion live, 19 August 2017.
Jennifer Wick, Drug shortage: unexpected reward [on Gupta et al below], Pharmacy Times, 15 August 2017.
Charles Ornstein and Katie Thomas, Generic drug prices are falling, but are consumers benefitting? New York Times, 8 August 2017.
Ropes and Gray, FDA user fee reauthorization legislation enacted by Congress [includes import exemptions for shortages], Lexology, 7 August 2017.
Milena McLaughlin interview. How to remain vigilant with antimicrobial shortages, Contagion®, 6 August 2017.
Arjun Gupta et al., Drug shortage leading to serendipitous adoption of high-value care practice [PPI switch from IV to oral saves $]. BMJ Quality and Safety, 1 August 2017.
Carolyn Y. Johnson, The generic industry has brought huge cost savings. That may be changing. The Washington Post, 1 August 2017.
Tina Shively, Area clinic warns of prescription drug shortage, KVUE, 28 July 2017.
American College of Physicians, Generic drug prices increase when market competition decreases, Science daily, 3 July 2017.
Chintan V. Dave et al, Generic drug prices and market competition, Annals of Internal Medicine, 4 July 2017.
Jess Bidgood, Pharmacist gets 9-year prison term in deadly meningitis outbreak [caused by mold-contaminated substitute used during drug shortage], New York Times, 26 June 2017
Stephen Barlas, Drug industry groups oppose FDA Quality Metrics Plan, P&T Community, June 2017.
Amanda Kelley, First responders sound alarm on cardiac drug shortage, WLWT Cinncinati, 17 June 2017.
Physicians against Drug Shortages & Philip Zweig (PADS) urges Senate HELP to STOP the artificial shortages and skyrocketing prices of prescription drugs by repealing the misguided 1987 Medicare anti-kickback “safe harbor” provision for healthcare group purchasing organizations (GPOs) and pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs), 13 June 2017.
Alex Kacik, Sodium bicarbonate shortage puts surgeries on hold, Modern Healthcare, 26 May 2017.
Todd Ebert, Answer to drug shortages [letter re Bill], New York Times, 25 MAy 2017.
Anon. Bill enourages pharmaceutical drug competition, Life Science Daily, 25 May 2017.
Erin Rubin, The sophisticated US healthcare system has a shortage of generic drugs, Non Profit Quarterly, 24 May 2017.
Eric Palmer, Hospitals scramble for sodium bicarbonate, 1 of 8 drugs Pfizer says are currently in short supply, Fierce Pharma, 22 May 2017.
Keila Guimarães, Pharma’s Big Fail: Benzathine Penicillin shortages are bringing syphilis back all over the world, Quartz, 18 May 2017.
Jill Sederstrom, CDC anticipates yellow fever vaccine shortage, Drug Topics, 15 May 2017.
Anon., NYC: Advocates protest Pfizer over third shortage of key syphilis medication in one year, AIDS Healthcare Foundation, 18 May 2017. See also here.
Anon. Premier Inc. Survey: Pharmaceutical costs [and drug shortages] remain major area of concern for Healthcare Leaders [press release], Premier Inc. 24 April 2017. For a 2014 survey that said the same thing and detailed costs, click here.
Alex Kacik, Pfizer gets subpoenas amid saline antitrust investigation, Modern Healthcare, 19 April 2017.
Benjamin J. Davies et al. Access to injectable generic drugs– the case of intravesical BCG for bladder cancer, N Engl J Med 2017; 376:1401-3, 13 April 2017.
Eric Palmer, BMS and Pfizer file 16 Eliquis patent lawsuits to waylay generic makers, Fierce Pharma, 12 April 2017.
Anon. Asia Pacific to be growth engine as tuberculosis drugs market surges [contends US shortages owing to this factor], Medgadget, 31 March 2017
Emily Vail et al., Norepinephrine shortage and mortality among patients with septic shock, JAMA, 21 March 2017.
Anon. Seven ways hospitals can beat drug shortages and price hikes, Managed Care Magazine, 24 February 2017.
Mackenzie Bean, Five factors driving drug shortages, Beckers Hospital Review, 9 February 2017.
Jennifer McKevitt, Pharmaceutical supply chain gaps force $230M in drug shortage costs upon health care providers, Supply Chain Dive, 8 February 2017.
PharmaTech editors, Drug shortage survey points topharma’s supply chain management weakness, PharmaTech, 7 February 2017.
Brian P. Dunleavy, PEW finds quality issues not the only cause of drug shortages, Contagion Live, 25 January 2017.
Pat Anson, ‘Confusing’ email warns of drug shortages in Florida [licence suspension for opiods] Pain News Network, 21 January 2017.
Jennifer Barrett, Drug shortage prompts FDA toallow use of EU-approved product (alitretinoin for cutaneous Kaposi’s sarcoma), Pharmacy Times, 17 January 2017.
Anon., International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering and the Pew Charitable Trusts release report on Drug Shortages, Benzinga, 10 January 2017.
Edward Yardeni, Has shortage of new drugs pushed up prices of old drugs? Newsmax, 5 January 2017.
Diane Mastrull, Helping hospitals track counterfeit drugs [and shortages] is this start-up’s Rx, Philly.com, 30 December 2016.
Jean Friedman-Rudovsky, Stortage of injectable estrogen unnerves transgender community, The Inquirer, 18 December 2016.
Christopher Thomas, National drug shortage impacts ENC [eastern North Carolina], Public Radio East, 13 December 2016.
Anon., AHF blasts Pfizer over shortage of syphilis medication Bicillin on heels of CDC report showing skyrocketing infection rates, Business Wire, 8 December 2016.
TRT editor, Public health experts call on FDA to better manage injectable estrogen shortage process [awaiting approval of new raw ingredient], Rainbow Times, 6 December 2016.
Tabitha Holland, Stocks to watch for: Merrimack Pharmaceuticals-inc [has approval of new product during Doxil shortage] Newburgh Press, 2 December 2016.
Beth Jones Sanborn, Staffing shortages top list of C-suite concerns in economic outlook, Premier says [also drug shortages], Healthcare Finance, 28 November 2016.
Benjamin Davies, Sanofi shuts down cladder cancer drug production, Forbes,17 November 2016.
Mary Sell, Bill would allow firing squad as death choice [Alabama], Times Daily, 5 November 2016.
Phillip Zweig, Time to free a controlled marketplace for generic drugs [op ed], Barron’s, 15 October 2015.
Eric Sagonowsky, Random ‘unpredictable’ drug price hikes send costs skyward at US hospitals, Fierce Pharma, 12 October 2016.
Kayla Ruble, More obstacles delay trans women’s access to injectable estrogen, Vice, 11 October 2016.
Josh Bloom, Escalating drug prices not all what it seems, American Council on Science and Health, 4 October 2016.
HRC [Human Rights Campaign] Staff, HRC takes action on injectable estrogen shortage, HRC.org, 23 September 2016
Da Hee Han, Prostate, lung [testicular] cancer drug currently in shortage [etopophos], MPR, 19 September 2016.
Anon., Some suggest nitrogen for Ohio executions and lethal injecxtion drug shortage, Idea Stream, 9 September 2016.
Daphne Chen, It’s not just Epipens: drug prices rising across the board, Desert News, 5 September 2016.
Amy Faith Ho, Iron curtain of drug pricing will topple the healthcare system [GPOs and secrecy], The Hill, 2 September 2016.
Agnes Shanley, Sterile injectables shortages: Can innovation end a crisis, PharmaTech News, 2 September 2016.
Editorial, Senators silent on EpiPen issue, Nashua Telegraph, 30 August 2016.
Robert King, FDA partly to blame in EpiPen price debacle[blog], Washington Post, 27 August 2016.
P. Wong, Schrader bill would speed up federal drug review, Portland Tribune, 26 August 2016.
Katie Thomas, Painted as EpiPen villain, Mylan’s chief says she’s no such thing [she earned $19M in 2015], New York Times, 26 August 2016.
The Editorial Board, Another drug pricing rip-off [EpiPen], New York Times, 25 August 2016.
Rita C.Peters, When marketing and medicine collide [prices too high e.g., EpiPen], Pharmtech, 24 August 2016.
Nikole Robinson Carroll, Drug shortage stops executions in Nevada, KNPR Nevada Public Radio, 17 August 2016.
Jill Wechsler, Drug shortages raise economic and ethical challenges, PharmExec, 12 August 2016.
Molly Redden, Shortage of estrogen drugs in US worries trans women: it’s my peace of mind, The Guardian, 9 August 2016.
Jill Wechsler, Quality manufacturing key to stemming drug shortages, Pharm Tech, 2 August 2016.
Eric Palmer, To avoid shortages FDA allows imports from 8 drug plants banned for quality shortfalls, Fierce Pharma, 25 July 2016.
Anna Edney, Facing [cancer] drug shortage, US relies on banned Chinese plant, Bloomberg, 22 July 2016.
Alexander Foster et al. FDA releases draft guidances on compounded drugs, helps ot answer “when are they copies?” JD Supra, 20 July 2016.
Zachary Brennan, GAO on drug shortages: FDA’s prioritization of generic injectables and ANDAs [abbreviated new drug applications] is helping, RAPS, 13 July 2016
Da Hee Han, Amneal initiates temporary import of cancer drug [bleomycin] due to shortage, MPR, 13 July 2016.
Mackenzie Bean, GAO: fewer new drug shortages while ongoing shortages remain steady, Becker’s Hospital Review, 11 July 2016
Jonathan J. Cooper, Advocates hope shaming drugmakers discourages price spikes, The Rundown, 10 July 2016.
Christine Blank, New bill [CREATE bill] aims to support generic, biosimilar drug competition, Modern Medicine, 6 July 2016.
Meg LaTorre Snyder, A CMO with a hand in parenteral drugs [a paen to Baxter], Pharmapro magazine, July 2016
Henry I. Miller, We are endangered by drug shortages and the FDA shares the blame, Forbes, 6 July 2016.
Kevin E. Noonan, The CREATE ACT of 2016: Senate listens to generic industry, JD Supra Business Advisor, 23 June 2016.
Gabriella Ciuffetelli, Watchdog [GAO] says DEA [drug enforcement agenc]y failures lead to drug shortage, Washington Examiner, 22 June 2016.
Sara Racliffe, Bill won’t lower drug prices, Sacramento Bee, 20 June 2016.
ISPE, Recognizes leaders in drug shortage prevention at 2016 annual FOYA Awards Banquet [Baxter and Janssen], press release, 8 June 2016.
Rachel Lutz, During penicillin shortage prioritize treatment of pregnant women, Pharmacy Times, 3 June 2016.
Zachary Brennan, FDA bans imports from Teva’s Hungary plant except for two drugs in shortage, RAPS, 2 June 2016.
Austin Frakt, Drug prices too high? Sometimes, they’re not costly enough, New York Times, 30 May 2016.
Viswanath Pilla, Five things to know about Sun Pharma’s US grand jury subpoena, Live Mint, 30 May 2016. [generic prices too high]
Valerie Lapointe, Hospital drug shortages: What is really causing them? [about GPO’s], Medill Reports, 26 May 2016.
Eric Palmer, Pfizer drug shortage causes issues for syphilis treatment, Fierce Pharma, 26 May 2016.
Rae Ellen Bichell, Penicillin shortage could be a problem for people with syphilis, NPR, 23 May 2016.
Jackie Syrop, Drug shortages continue despite federal law to prevent them, AJMC.com, 14 May 2016
Christina Fan, Fresno officials concerned with shortage of syphilis fighting drugs, ABC News, 17 May 2016.
Aviva Rutkin, Lethal injections under threat after US drug firm [Pfizer] pulls plug, New Scientist, 17 May 2016.
Seth Millstein, Will any states have to give up the death penalty [Pfizer], Bustle, 13 May 2016.
AP, Texas fighting order to disclose execution drug supplier, Kristv.com, 11 May 2016.
Anon. Interphex 2016 press release [Dr. Stephen Spielberg] Benzinga, 5 May 2016.
Michelle Andrews, Shortages grow for lifesaving ER drugs study finds, NPR, 2 May 2016.
Ziba Kashef, Shortages in nations’ drug supply persist despite federal efforts, Yale News, 2 May 2015.
Serene I. Chen et al [A. Venkatesh at Yale]. Despite Federal Legislation, shortages of drugs used in acute care settings remain persistent and prolonged, Health Affairs, May 2016.
AFP, Will US secrecy laws boost the death penality, Daily Mail, 21 April 2016.
Maurice Chamma et al. How the Drug shortage has slowed the death penalty treadmill, The Marshall Project, 12 April 2016.
Alex Hein, Shortages of Essential Drugs are becoming frequent globally, Fox News, 4 April 2016.
Anees Chagpar, America’s ongoing lack of generic drugs is a matter of life and death, Quartz, 3 April 2016
Duane Morris, FDA implements expedited review of ANDA submissions for “sole-source” drug products, Lexology, 31 March 2016.
Kathleen Ruddy, Rationing childhood cancer drugs is unacceptable, Inside Sources: Politics, 30 March 2016.
Wes Duplantier, Blumenthal seeks answers on whether health purchasing groups [GPOs] are costing consumers [and causing shortages], New Haven Register, 28 March 2016
John Linehan, Drug compounding: cause and cure for high drug prices, Pharmaceutical Executive, 23 March 2016.
Jeff Lagasse, Healthcare Supply Chain Association lauds FDA prioritization of ‘sole source’ generic drug applications, Health Care Finance, 22 March 2016
Michael Alkire, Unpacking drug price spikes, Health Affairs Blog, 21 March 2016.
Zachary Brennan, FDA to prioritize generic drug applications for ‘sole source’ products, RAPS, 14 March 2016.
Edward A. Bell, Drug shortages pose challenges, spark open communication in US health care, Infectious Diseases in Children, March 2016.
Alanna Durkin Richer, Virginia Senate OKs use of electric chair admidst drug shortage, ABC News, 7 Match 2016.
Valerie Lapointe, The high price of prescription drugs: a hard pill to swallow, Medill Reports Chicago, 3 March 2016.
Maria Hernandez, Guam feels effect of asthma medicine shortage, Pacific Daily News, 26 February 2016.
David Ferguson, Providers must inform patients how the prescription drug shortage impacts their care, Fierce Pharma, 25 February 2016. See also Hensall and Wolf below.
Todd Ebert, Connecticut hospitals navigating new cost, supply challenges [psalm to GPOs], New Haven Register, 25 February 2016.
Jason de Bruyn, Drug shortage over; Heat Biologics stops enrolling trial patients, Triangle Business Journal, 25 February 2016.
Wendy F. Hensall & Leslie E. Wolf, Hospitals rationing drugs behind closed doors: a civil rights issue, The Conversation, 23 February 2016.
Alfred Engelberg et al. Addressing generic drug unafforability and shortages by globalizing the market for old drugs, Health Affairs Blog, 23 February 2016.
Eric Palmer, FDA allows banned China plant to ship chemo API [daunorubicin for Kaposi’s, leukaemia and lymphoma] that is in short supply, Fierce Pharma, 22 February 2016. See also Michelle Maskaly, 23 February 2016.
Zachary Brennan, FDA allows banned Chinese firm to shop chemotherapy [daunorubicin] into US as shortage threat looms, RAPS, Regulatory Affairs Professionals Society Focus News, 18 February 2016.
Lydia Ramsey, We’re running out of drugs and the consequences could be disastrous, Business Insider, 17 February 2016
Susan Lehmann, Two Children are sick. There’s medicine for one. Who gets it? Who decides? New York Times podcast, 12 February 2016.
Meghan Ross, 7 drug shortage findings health-system pharmacists should know, Pharmacy Times, 12 February 2016.
Edward Shensky, Drug shortages are forcing treatments to be rationed, The National Law Review, 10 February 2016.
Max Nisen, The real lesson of the Shkreli Circus, Bloomberg Gadfly, 5 February 2016.
Michael Kopcha, Modernizing Pharmaceutical manufacturing to improve drug quality, FDA Voice, 1 February 2016.
Sharon Lurye, Facing critical drug shortages, doctors must decide which kids get chemo, Pilly Voice, 1 February 2016.
Robert Glatter, Pediatric oncologists offer recommendations for allocating scarce chemotherapy drugs during drug shorages. Forbes, 31 January 2016.
Zachary Brennan, WHO offers new plan to limit drug shortages, RAPS, 29 January 2016
Anon. Alexander says despite extra $1B to speed generic drug approvals,FDA process still slow. Chatanoogan, 29 January 2016.
Todd Ebert, Congress should act to help reduce generic drug price spokes, The Hill- Congress Blog, 28 January 2016.
Erin Blakemore, Drug shortages in American ERs–mosty of lifesaving medicines to treat infectious or poisonings–have increased more than 400 percent, Wahsinton Post, 22 January 2016. For the actual study see Hawley below, or click here.
Anon. Drug shortages in US emergency rooms on the rise, Fox News, 15 January 2016.
Phillip L. Zweig and Robert A. Campbell, Blumenthal’s silence defeaning on root cause of surging generic drug prices, Register Citizen, 10 January 2016.
Shannon Firth, Commercially driven spike in drug shortages endangers lives, Truthdig, 8 January 2016.
Sanjay Gupta, Spike in drug shortages worries ER Docs, Medpage Today, 7 Jan 2016.
Lillianna Byington, Study: Emergency rooms drug shortages quadruple over 8 years, The GW Hatchet, 6 Jan 2016.
Michael Hiltzik, The FDA can single-handedly reduce drug-price gouging. Why is it waiting Los Angeles Times, 5 January 2016
Francie Diep, American Emergency Rooms are facing critical drug shortage, Pacific Standard, 5 January 2016.
Kristy L. Hawley et al., Longitudinal trends in US drug shortages for medications used in Emergency deptertments (2001-2014), Academic Emergency Medicine, Jan 2016 posted 30 December 2015.
Teligent, Teligent Inc. announces FDA approval of CEFOTAN (cefotetan) for injection. Product launch in early 2016 will address current drug shortage, press release, 11 December 2015,
Matthew Carr, How investors should react to the Great Saline Shortage, Investment U, 4 November 2015.
Lily Wachtor, Senators urge FTC investigation of saline shortage, UPR Utah Public Radio, 3 November 2015.
Melinda Beck, Sanofi recalls Auvi-Q allergy injectors, Wall Street Journal, 29 October 2015.
Anon., Klobuchar, other senators urge investigation of saline solution makers, Brainerd Displatch, 28 October 2015.
Nicole Gray, Drug shortages and patent expiration: authorized generics as more than a lifecycle strategy, BioPharma Dive, 27 October 2015.
Peter Loftus, Senators seek FTC probe of drug makers over saline shortage, The Wall Street Journal, 26 October 2015.
Anon., Premier, Inc survey suggests health system C-suite also concerned with ongoing drug shortages, which contribute to high-cost pharmaceuticals, Fierce Pharma, 21 October 2015.
Andrew Welsh-Huggins, Lethal drug shortage has some US death penalty supporters thinking electrocution, firing squads, The Star, 20 October 2015.
Anna Edney, Former FDA chief backs Clinton’s push for Daraprim competition, Bloomberg, 20 October 2015.
Suzanne McNamara, Hillary Clinton urges federal actions in response to unfair price hike of life-saving drug, The Market Business, 20 October 2015.
James Love, Drug pricing is out of control. What should be done, PLOS Blog, 19 October 2015.
Anon., Drug price spike to area of concern for health systems, survey finds,…also concerned with ongoing drug shortages, which contribute to high-cost pharmaceuticals, CNN Money, 15 October 2015.
Diana Ernst, Drug used to reduce mortality after MI, discontinued [lopressor], MPR.com, 8 October 2015.
Tony Hagen, Drug shortages persist despite FDA push for more information, OncLive, 1 October 2015.
Anonymous Guest Post, Drug shortages, price gouging and our broken health care system, ValueWalk, 30 September 2015.
Katherine Derla, Hilary Clinton wants to legalize prescription pill import from Canada, Tech Times 28 September 2015. [Manitoba, Ontario?!]
Lori Tucker, Knoxville doctors frustrated with shortages of common drugs, WATE on your side, 24 September 2015.
Jeremy A. Greene, Generic drug price gouging: how Shkreli and other monopolists concerned the market on essential medications, Slate, 23 September 2015.
Anon. Drug goes from $13.50 a tablet $75, Bloomberg, 21 September 2015.
Andrew Pollack, Drug goes from $13.50 a tablet $750, New York Times, 20 September 2015.
Eleanor Graham, Looming shortage of most effective snake Antivenom raises concerns among experts, NY City News, 9 September 2015
Josh Bloom, Why all that generic drug price savings never happened, Science 2.0, 28 August 2015.
Andrew Pollack, Drug companies pushed from far and wide to explain high prices, New York Times, 23 July 2015.
Kris B. Mamula, Consumer groups condemn Teva-Mylan deal. Pittsburgh Business Times, 14 July 2015.
Michael Mehzer, FDA finalizes six-month drug storage notice regulation, Regulatory Affairs Professionals Society, 9 July 2015.
Taylor Dobbs, Report: After patient death UVM Medical centre waited weeks to fix flawed system [shortage of Ketamine implicated], Vermont’s NPR News Source, 7 July 2015.
FDA, Antiemetic shortage announced [aprepitant], MPR, 29 June 2015
Victoria Colliver, U.S. suffering from prescription drug shortage, San Francisco Chronicle, 22 June 2015.
Eryka Washington, Patients battle prescription problems [regulations to prevent abuse resulting in access problems], ClickOrlando.com, 18 June 2015.
FDA, announces 2 July 2015 Webinar: Risk-based strategies to prevent drug shortages, FDANews, 18 June 2015.
Dara Lind, What you need to know before the Supreme Court’s death penalty ruling, Vox, 10 June 2015.
AP, Drug Abuse crackdown leads to NV hydrocodone shortage, KOLOTVnews, 10 June 2015.
Sarah Wickline Wallan, Pricey Drugs prompt AMA to ask FDA and FTC for help, MEDPAGE TODAY, 9 June 2015.
Richard Amerling, Price control could dangerously limit Rx drugs, Newsmax, 4 June 2015.
Elizabeth Hayes, Prescription drug shortage slams OHSU [Oregon] and other providers, Portland Business Journal, 3 June 2015.
Meagan Parrish, US drug shortage–by the numbers, Pharmaceutical Processing, 2 June 2015.
Peter Loftus, US Drug shortages frustrate doctors, patients, The Wall Street Journal, 31 May 2015.
Fahri Quadri et al. Antibacterial drug shortages from 2010 to 2013: implications for clinical practice, Clinical Infectious Disease, 60 (15 June 2015; online 22 April): 1737-42.
Zacks Equity Research, Baxter’s Spain plant FDA-Approved for Saline production, Zacks, 20 May 2015.
Marie Rosenthal, [A GPO–Novation] Survey Says…negative effects from Genetech’s new distribution method, Pharmacy Practice News, 19 May 2015.
Brett Connolly, DEA, FDA discuss prescription problems at US Senate hearing, WESH.com [Florida], 7 May 2015.
Elizabeth Faugi, Supreme Court debates challenge to execution drug, ABC News, 30 April 2015.
Christopher Brauchli, Drugs, Guns, or Life in Prison, Huff Post The Blog, 24 April 2015.
Thomas Sullivan, Drug shortages policy update, Policy and Medicine, 22 April 2015.
Lenny Bernstein, When the hospital’s drug cabinet is bare, Washington Post, 24 April 2015.
Associated Press, Nebraska might repeal death penalty due to drug shortage FOX News, 17 April 2015.
Marta Wosinska et al, Are shortages going down or not? interpreting data from the FDA and the University of Utal Drug Information Service [ASHP], Health Affairs Blog, 8 April 2015.
Ernst Berndt, Rena M. Conti, David H. Howard, Cancer drug prices rise with no end in sight, Vox, CEPR’s Policy Portal, 25 March 2015.
Kelly Cohen, Amid lethal drug shortage Utah legalizes execution by firing squad, Washington Examiner, 24 March 2015.
Melissa Klein, Cancer drug [BCG] shortage sends patient on grim search, New York Post, 22 March 2015
Anders, Kelto, Why is insulin so expensive in the US?, Shots–Health News, NPR, 19 March 2015.
A.P. With execution drug shortage, Utah’s not the only state with its eye on the firing squad, Salt Lake Tribune, 11 March 2015.
Staff, FDA issues mobile app to search for drug shortages, Reuters, 6 March 2015.
Karla L. Palmer, A bitter pill for DEA: GAO releases its report on drug shortages and DEA’s management of the quota system, FDA Law Blog, 4 March 2015
Mark Berman, Why the US won’t stop executing inmates even as a Supreme Court ruling looms, Washington Post, 18 February 2015.
David Gelles and Katie Thomas, Pfizer bets $15 billion on new type of generic drugs, New York Times, 5 February 2015
Erika Fry, There’s a national shortage of saline. Fortune, 5 Februrary 2015.
PEW Health Group, Health Care groups identify potential measures to address ongoing drug shortages. EurekAlert! Science News, 5 February 2015.
Philip Zweig, Robert Campbell, How to stop generic drug shortages? End hospital group purchasing kickbacks, Fortune, 30 January 2015.
Peter B. Bach, Why drugs cost so much, New York Times, 14 January 2015.
Stephanie Stahl, Sporadic shortages of flu drug reported [Tamiflu], CBS Philly, 8 January 2015.
Rob Erb, Flu kills 5 in Michigan; spot drug shortages reported, Lansing State Journal, 8 January 2015.
Philip M. Rosoff, When doctors have to play God over drug shortages, The Fiscal Times, 6 January 2015.
Mark Koba, Drug shortage in US may pose deadly problem for patients, Time, 6 January 2015.
Mark Koba, US has a drug shortage and people are dying, Fortune, 6 January 2015.
Sherry A. Glied, Correcting misperceptions related to chemotherapy drug shortages in the United States, Journal of Oncology Practice, 23 December 2014 [responding to Kantarjian below].
Sheryl Nass and Margie Patlak, Ensuring Patient Access to Affordable Cancer Drugs: Workshop Summary, National Cancer Policy Forum, Institute of Medicine, 2014 [free download at link; drug shortages throughout and esp. on pp. 15-17 and 40].
Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Drug shortage crisis puts public health at risk, The Conversation, 11 December 2014.
AP Columbus, Ohio law makers remove death penalty bill measure that could have led to drug shortages [propofol], Guardian, 10 December 2014.
Jonathan Alperin et al., High-cost generic drugs: implications for patients and policymakers, New England Journal of Medicine, 371:1859-62, 13 November 2014.
Thomas Finn, New GPO Industry reports promote value in anticipation of GAO Survey inspired by critics. Healthcare Matters, 21 October 2014.
Benjamin Davies, Bladder cancer drug shortages and price gouging: the new reality, Forbes, 16 October 2014.
Anon, Actavis agrees to continue making Alzheimer drug for now, Generics and Biosimilars Initiative, 10 October 2014 [see 15 September below]
Peter Jaret, Dangerous drug shortages, AARP Bulletin, October 2014.
Alexander L. Trembley and David Page, Researchers offer strategies for overcoming drug shortages [refers to item below], Journal of Emergency Medical Services, 1 October 2014.
M. Mazer-Amirshahi, A. Pourmand, S. Singer, et al. Critical drug shortages: Implications for emergency medicine, Academic Emergency Medicine 21(6):704–711, 1 October 2014.
Chris Nerney, Drug shortages drain hospital dollars, Healthcare Finance News, 30 September 2014.
Anon. Guerbet wins drug shortage assistance award from FDA, News-Medical.net, 29 September 2014
Katie Thomas et al. Detailing financial links of doctors and drug makers, New York Times, 30 September 2014.
Douglas C. Throckmorton, FDA Drug Shortage Assistance Award, recognizing manufacturers who help prevent or alleviate drug shortages, FDA Voice, 24 September 2014.
Hagop Kantarjian, Chemotherapy Drug Shortages in the United States Revisited. Journal of Oncology Practice JOP, September 2014: 329-31.
Christian Collins, Shortage of Alzheimer’s medication concerns some Abilenians, KTXS News, 19 September 2014.
Andrew Pollack, Forest Laboratories’ Namenda [for Alzheimer’s] is focus of lawsuit, New York Times, 15 September 2014
Eric Palmer, UPDATED: Merck again shipping BCG cancer treatment but Sanofi still is not FiercePharma, 10 September 2014.
Liv Osby, Drug shortages put patient care at risk, Greenville Online, 20 August 2014.
Earl Rinehart, Vending Machines help Ohio medics deal with drug shortages, JEMS, 18 Augsut 2014.
Dr. Nicola Davies, FDA Focus: FDA Regulations and drugs shortages in America, The Pharma Letter, 15 August 2014.
Charles E. Schumer, Looming shortage of doxycycline, an antibiotic used to treat Lyme disease is sending price of drug skyrocketing, Longilsand.com, 14 August 2014.
Jonathan LaPook, FDA approval of ancient remedy [colchicine] sends price soaring, CBS News, 5 August 2014.
Jennifer Fiala, Rumoured price hikes, rationing send veterinarians scrambling for saline, VIN News, 11 July 2014.
Susan Bliss, Shortages of prescription drugs reported nationwide, Healthline, 21 July 2014.
Anon. Is there no solution? Saline shortage creates issue for US Hospitals, Metro News, 28 June 2014.
April Dembosky, Shortage of saline solution has hospitals on edge, NPR, 22 June 2014.
Matthew Herper, What will happen when biotech drugs go generic, Forbes Magazine, 13 June 2014.
Katherine Eban, The scary reality of a world without meds, Reader’s Digest, June 2014.
Euro News, US drug shortage could change death penalty, 22 April 2014.
Jennifer Hickey, Government causes generic drug shortage [generic prices], Newsmax, 16 April 2014.
Kirsten Stewart, Utah tracking shows persistent drug shortages nationwide, Salt Lake Tribune, 9 April 2014.
Zachary Brennan, US FDA issues import alert on Apotex’s Indian API facility, inPharma, 3 April 2014.
Philip Zweig and Robert A. Campbell, Letter: Response to McKeever et al below [on GPO cause of the drug shortage] Clinical J of Oncology Nursing, 18.2: 143-145, April 2014.
Toni Clarke, US FDA movers to offset shortage of common saline solution [by importing product from Norway], Reuters, 28 March 2014.
Curtis Rooney, Letter: GPOs are not responsible for generic drug shortages. Opinion, Buffalo News Online, [response to Zweig 16 March below], 26 March 2014.
Christian DeRoo, Pay to Play: The impact of Group Purchasing Organizations on the drug shortage, American University Business Law Review 3.1, 227-248, 18 March 2014.
Ted Slafsky, A skewed view on drug shortages [response to Pitts, 11 March below], Delaware online, 25 March 2014.
Katie Thomas and Sabrina Tavernise, Nitroglycerin, a staple of emergency rooms is in short supply, New York Times, 25 March 2014.
John L. Hick, Dan Hanfling, Brooke Courtney, and Nicole Lurie, Rationing salt water–disaster planning and daily care delivery, New England Journal of Medicine, 25 March 2014.
Eyder Peralta, Oklahoma court delays 2 executions because of drug shortage, NPR, 18 March 2014.
Anonymous, Oklahoma faces lethal drug shortage as death row inmates seek further delay, The Guardian, 17 March 2014.
Philip Zweig, Another voice: Schumer defends system that creates shortage of critical prescription drugs, Buffalo News, 16 March 2014.
Hagop Kantarjian and Vivian Ho, Chemotherapy drug shortages in the U.S.-the recurring nightmare, Baker Institute Blog at Rice U, Chron, 13 March 2014.
Peter J. Pitts, Another view: drug shortage policies still come up short, The DesMoines Register, 11 March 2014.
Arnold J. Berry, Looking for treatment for the drug shortage, not a simple prescription, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 89.3: 281-3, March 2014.
Erin R. Fox, Burgunda V. Sweet, Valerie Jensen, Drug shortages: a complex health care crisis, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 89.3: 362-73.
Melissa Pandika, A new drug problem–not enough of them, USA Today, 6 March 2014.
David Jolly, Italy fines Novartis and Roche in Collusion Case, New York Times, 5 March 2014.
Kathy Wilets, National drug shortages at all-time high, threatening patient care, Health Canal, 28 February 2014.
Russ Britt, Drug shortages continue to cost hospitals, delay procedures, Market Watch WSJ, 28 February 2014.
Jennifer Thomas, Premier: Drug shortages continue to affect patient care, increase costs, Charlotte Business Journal, 28 February 2014.
Linda A. Johnson, Hospitals coping better as drug shortages persist. AP The Big Story, 27 February 2014.
Juergen Baetz, Europe’s hostility to capital punishment at root of US execution drug shortage, Salt Lake Tribune, 18 February 2014.
Brussels (AP), US execution drug shortage due to Europe’s opposition to death penalty, Walla Walla Union-Bulletin, 18 February 2014.
Peter J. Pitts, Erika Lessem, Donna Hope Wegener, Elizabeth Thompson, What to do about drug shortages? [3 Letters in reaction to Tavernise article below], New York Times, 17 February 2014 (print 18 Feb. A22).
Sabrena Tavernise, Drug shortages continue to vex doctors, New York Times, 10 February 2014.
Thomas Finn, American Hustle: GPOs blamed for drug shortages? Healthcare Matters, 10 February 2014.
Mollyann March and Philip Zweig, GPO’s fuel drug shortages, Baltimore Sun, 7 February 2014
Jennifer Goldsack et al., Impact of shortages of injectable oncology drugs on patient care, American Journal of Health Systems Practice, February 2014, 71: e24-e31.
Press Release, Shortages of Oncology drugs continue to impact patient care, ASHP, 4 February 2014.
Nick O’Malley, Botched Ohio execution raises death penalty dilemma, Sydney Morning Herald, 19 January 2014.
Alex Johnson, Some states look at reviving firing squads amid shortage of execution drugs, NBC News, 17 January 2014.
Nick Paul Taylor, BIO and Sanofi are pushing the FDA to tweak its drug shortage rule for vaccines, Fierce Vaccines, 16 January 2014.
Alexander Gaffney, BIO argues changes needed to FDA’s drug shortage rule to account for vaccines, RF Regulatory Focus, 15 January 2014.
Andrew Welsh-Huggins, Dennis McGuire could be the first US inmate put to death with new drug combo, Huffington, 10 January 2014.
Bret Coons, Newly published survey shows drug shortages still have a major impact on patient care [about McLaughlin et al below] Eureka Alert, 9 January 2014.
Alexander Gaffney, Could FDA’s new drug shortage rule make shortages worse? Generic drug industry says ‘yes’, RF Regulatory Focus, 7 January 2014.
AP, Ohio death row inmate to be executed with ‘agonizing’ lethal injection method, The Guardian, 7 January 2014.
Keetha Gogineni, Kathleen Shuman and Ezekiel Emanuel. Survey of oncologists about shortages of cancer drugs. New England Journal of Medicine (369):2463-2464, 19 December 2013.
Jonathan D. Rockoff, Hester Plumridge, Glaxo to end payments to doctors for drug promotion, Wall Street Journal, 17 December 2013.
Jonathan D. Rockoff, Ron Winslow, New medicines emerge, but few blockbusters. Drug Makers find it hard to elbow aside established, often cheaper, products. Wall Street Journal, 15 December 2013.
Brie Zeitner, Heartworm drug shortage for dogs has its roots in Northeast Ohio [BenVenu labs], Cleveland Plain Dealer, 3 December 2013.
Milena McLaughlin et al. Effects on patient care caused by drug shortages: A Survey. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, vol. 19, no. 9, Nov-Dec, 2013.
Marta Wosinska [FDA], Solving drug shortages requires incentivizing, reliability, infrastructure quality, Bloomberg Briefs, 11 November 2013.
Manny Fernandez, Executions tall as states seek different drugs, New York Times, 8 November 2013.
Toni Clarke, US FDA outlines plan to combat drug shortages, Reuters, 31 October 2013.
FDA, FDA takes two important actions on drugs shortages, New release, 31 October 2013.
Jacob Gershman, Drug shorage forces Ohio to turn to lethal substitute for execution, Wall Street Journal Law Blog, 28 October 2013.
Associated Press, Ohio turns to untried execution drug mix due to shortage of pentobarbital, The Guardian, 28 October 2013.
Nick Mulcahy, Major Setback in US Cancer Drug Shortage, Medscape, 17 October 2013.
Ted Agres, Doctor group claims drug purchasing organizations causing chronic drug shortage, Clinical Oncology, 17 October 2013.
Eric Palmer, Federal case over drug shortage comes to an end, FiercePharma Manufacturing, 17 October 2013.
Daily Mail and Reuters, Florida murderer [William Happ] who raped and killed woman is left writhing in agony and takes twice as long to die using new untried lethal injection drug, Mail Online, 15 October 2013.
Tu Thanh Ha, Untried sedative to be used in lethal injection tonight because of drug shortage, Globe and Mail, 15 October 2013.
Elizabeth Rosenthal, The soaring cost of a simple breath, New York Times, 12 October 2013.
Associated Press, Missouri execution halted over fears of drug shortage, The Guardian, 11 October 2013.
Editorial, Greed, legalized corruption, and the death penalty, St Louis Post Dispatch, 11 October 2013.
Alexander Gaffney, Shortages ongoing and import approach in legal jeopardy; FDA turns to expedited approvals, RF News, 7 October 2013.
Eric Gaillard, Death row inmates sue Texas for sourcing execution drug from compounding pharmacy, Reuters, 4 October 2013.
Jonathan D. Rockoff, Boehringer unit [Ben Venue] that makes J&J’s Doxil will shut down, Wall Street Journal, 3 October 2013.
Heidi Ledford, Drug shortage slows clinical trials, Nature News, 3 October 2013.
CBS News, Emmy winning reports: cancer drug shortages lower children’s survival rate [about Dr Jon LaPook’s reporting], CBS News, 2 October 2013
Jef Feely and Michelle Fay Cortez, J&J says Boehringer fight may case cancer drug shortage [Doxil[, Bloomberg, 1 October 2013.
Michael R. Cohen, Critically important anesthetic faces drug shortage if used in a Missouri execution, Philly.com, 1 October 2013.
Amy McKeever, Joan Rosen Bloch, Andrea Bratic, Drug shortages and the burden of access to care: a critical issue affecting patients with cancer, Clinical J of Oncology Nursing 17.5, October 2013.
Alexander Gaffney, Legislator asks for FDA evaluation of several novel ideas to solve drug shortage crisis, RF News, 27 September 2013.
Tim Ghianni, Tennessee moves to single drug executions despite pentobarbital shortage, Reuters, 27 September 2013.
Molly Hennessy-Fiske, Texas low on lethal drug, has no plans to change executions, Los Angeles Times, 19 September 2013.
Danielle H. Capilla, Court declines to create a duty for pharmaceutical manufacturers, Health Law Daily cited at Daily Reporting Suite, 6 September 2013. Report about Dale A. Kimball, Judgement in Janet Schubert versus Genzyme, US District Court for the District of Utah, 4 September 2013.
Margaret Clapp, Michael A. Rie, Philip L. Zweig, How a cabal keeps generics scare, New York Times, 2 September 2013.
Marcia Boumil and Gregory D. Curfman, On Access and Accountability- two Supreme Court rulings on generic drugs, New England Journal of Medicine, 22 August 2013.
Brian Bandell, Doctors worried about cancer drug shortage, South Florida Business Journal, 21 August 2013.
Christina Sterbenz, America is getting desperate for drugs to execute people, Business Insider, 19 August 2013.
Colin Poitras, Pharmacy professor working to prevent cancer drug shortages, UConn Today, 12 August 2013.
Thomas Finn, Blame Gamers now targeting GPOs for injectable drug shortages, Health Care Matters, 5 August 2013.
Reuters, Texas faces looming shortage of execution drug pentobarbital The Guardian, 2 August 2013.
Michael Graczyk, Texas Execution Drug Shortage: state running out of pentobarbital, Huffington Post, 1 August 2013.
Don Jeffrey, Mylan, Sandoz defeat Teva patent lawsuit over copaxone [for multiple sclerosis], Bloomberg, 16 July 2013.
Brent Kendall, U.S. court rejects generic delays, Wall Street Journal, 18 June 2013.
Edward Wyatt, Supreme Court lets regulators sue over generic drug deals, New York Times, 17 June 2013.
Paula Dwyer, Consumers win in Supreme Court’s pay-to-delay ruling, Bloomberg, 17 June 2013.
Gillian Mohney, Nutritional drug shortages take toll on the smallest patients, ABC News, 14 June 2013.
Vinita Nair, Critical drug shortage continues, CBS News, 4 June 2013.
Greg Rienzi, Essential drugs, short supplies, Johns Hopkins Magazine, 3 June 2013.
Keerthri Gogineni, U.S. cancer patients suffering from drug shortages, MEDLINEPlus, 3 June 2013.
Liz Szabo, Drug shortages endanger cancer patients study finds, USA Today, 3 June 2013
Matthew Perrone and Linda A. Johnson, FDA takes action to ease neonatal drug shortage, Boston Globe, 30 May 2013.
Vonda J. Sines, Lyme disease drug shortage prompts nationwide worries, Yahoo News, 29 May 2013
Alexandra Robbins, Children are Dying, Washingtonian, 22 May 2013.
Andrew L. Wang, Lawsuit: Supplier ‘hoodwinked’ Hospira in contract bid [over Canadian client], Health Care News–Crain’s Chicago Business, 14 May 2013.
Lawrence Hurley and Diane Bartz, [Supreme Court] Justices decline to hear Eaton Corp antitrust case, Reuters, 29 April 2013. [relevant to the GPO’s practices for selling drugs].
Arthur Caplan and Zachary Caplan, How Big Pharma rips you off on drugs [pay-for-delay], CNN.com, 25 April 2103.
Nina Totenberg, Supreme Court hears ‘pay to delay’ pharmaceutical case, NPR, 25 March 2013. [see reports from 17 June 2013 for outcome.]
Mark Karlin, Big pharma pays off generic drug companies, Americans spend billions of dollars more for prescriptions [based on NPR report], Buzz Flash.com, 25 March 2013.
Editorial, ‘Pay-to-delay’ pharmaceutical deals smack of illegal collusion, Washington Post, 24 March 2013.
Joseph Goedert, AHA advises FDA on Drug Shortage Fixes, Health Data Management, 18 March 2013.
ISPE, ISPE Drug Shortage Initiative Issues Survey in Support of Global Efforts to Understand Drug Shortages, Miami Herald, 14 February 2013.
Adam J. Fein, FDA updates its view on drug shortages, Drug Channels, 31 January 2013.
Roxanne Nelson, GPOs to Blame for Drug Shortages, says Physicians Group, Medscape Medical News, 24 January, 2013 [free account; password will be needed].
J. Woodcock and M. Wosinska State of the Art: Economic and Technical Drivers of Generic Sterile Injectable Drug Shortages, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 93.2 (Feb 2013): 171-76 online 23 January 2013.
Sylvia Perez, Growing drug shortage a problem for patients and doctors, ABC News, 3 January 2013.
Chelsea Conaboy, Drug shortage linked to increased chance of relapse in childhood cancer, Boston Globe, 27 December 2012.
Monika Metzger et al. The impact of drug shortages on children with cancer: the example of mechlorethamine [with audio link to discussion by Dr Bruce Chabner], New England Journal of Medicine, 27 December 2012.
Rob Stein, How a drug shortage hiked replapse risk for lymphoma patients, Health News from NPR, 26 December 2012.
American Society of Anesthesiologists and FDA, Town Hall on Drug Shortages, 14 December 2012.
Dan Vergano, Drug shortage tied to cancer relapse in kids, USA Today, 27 December 2012
Chelsea Conaboy, Human toll emerging in shortage of some cancer drugs, Boston Globe, 27 December 2012
Christine S. Moyer, Drug shortages worsen following pharmacy-related meningitis scare, Amednews.com, 10 December 2012
Editorial, A stubborn drug shortage, New York Times, 26 November 2012
Katie Thomas, Drug shortages are becoming persistent in U.S., New York Times, 17 November 2012.
Kristina Fiore, Buying groups’ role in drug shortages queried, Medscape, 16 November 2012.
Andrew Pollack, Sanofi halves price of cancer drug after Sloan Kettering rejection, New York Times, 8 November 2012.
Kristina Fiore, Drug shortages spark use of compounders, MedPage Today, 18 October 2012.
Katie Thomas, Drug makers stalled in a cycle of quality lapses and shortages, New York Times, 17 October 2012.
Peter Bach, Leonard B. Saltz, and Robert E. Wittes, In cancer care, cost matters, New York Times, 14 October 2012.
Anon. Hundreds seen at risk in meningitis outbreak [linked to shortages] Times Free Press, 4 October 2012.
Anon. US anti drug price gouging bill goes to committee [during shortages], InPharma Technologist.com, 4 October 2012.
Denise Grady, Sabrina Tavernese, and Andrew Pollack, A Question of Oversight on Compounding Pharmacies, New York Times, 4 October 2012.
Denise Grady, Meningitis outbreak grows with cases in 5 states, New York Times, 3 October 2012.
JoNel Aleccia, Drug shortages abating thanks to FDA efforts, NBC News, 7 September 2012.
Jaimy Lee, No shortage of blame: Congress refocusses on gray market in drug shortfalls, Modernhealthcare.com, 28 July 2012 [article currently available only with subscription]
Katie Thomas, Soaring ointment prices are a dermatologic mystery, New York Times, 9 August 2012.
Edward Wyatt, For Big Drug Companies, a headache looms. New York Times, 26 July 2012.
Nadia Kounang, Is FDA to blame for drug shortages. CNN News, 25 July 2012.
Sean Murphy, Oklahoma inmate: Drug shortage should halt execution, US News, 10 July 2012.
U.S. Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, Meaningless Red Tape Causing Medication Shortages, 15 June 2012 (press release — contains links to the full report).
Alice Park, Inside America’s Drug Shortage. Part 2 Scrambling for a Solution. Time, 21 March 2012
Alice Park, Inside America’s Drug Shortage. Part 1 US Cancer Drug Shortage: Economics of Generics to Blame? Time, 19 March 2012
Michael F. Cannon, What is causing drug shortages, Cato@Liberty, 16 March 2012.
Jonny Bonner, “Death by Drug Shortage, Widow [of a doctor] says” Courthouse News Service, 7 March 2012.
M. P. Link, K. Hagerty, HM Kantarjian. Chemotherapy Drug Shortages in the U.S., Journal of Clinical Oncology, 1 March 2012.
ASCO [American Society of Clinical Oncology], ASCO Calls on Congress to Solve the Growing Crisis of Cancer Drugs Shortage, ASCO in Action, 21 February 2012
Gardiner Harris, “Shipments from Abroad Ease Shortages of 2 Cancer Drugs,” New York Times, 21 February 2012.
Amy Willis, Drug shortage threatens Texas death sentences, Telegraph, 15 February 2012.
Glenn D. Braunstein, What’s behind our national drug shortages, Huffington Post, 6 February 2012.
Sharona Hoffman, The Drugs Stop Here; A Public Health Framework to Address the Drug Shortage Crisis. Food and Drug Law Journal 67.1 (2012): Research paper no 2012-4.
Barry A. Friedman, “FDA Increases Vigilance on Aseptic Processing Facilities,” [Bio/Pharmaceutical Outsourcing Report, Vol 16; No. 11, November 2011], 20 December 2011
John Wilkerson, HHS rejected ASP Hike after weighing GPO, drug distribution issues, InsideHealthPolicy.com, 9 November 2011
Editorial, “Frightening Shortage of [injectable] drugs,” New York Times, 18 February 2012
Gardiner Harris, “Supply of Cancer drug [methotrexate] may run out …” New York Times, 10 February 2012.
Patricia Anstett, Shortage of important drugs, Detroit Free Press, 5 January 2012
Philip M. Rosoff, Unpredictable drug shortages: an ethical framework, American Journal of Bioethics, 12.1: 1-9, January 2012.
Gardiner Harris, FDA … Attention Deficit Drugs, New York Times, 31 December 2011
American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) The Drug-Shortage Crisis, ASCO Connections Magazine, 19 December 2011
IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics, Drug shortages: A closer Look at products, suppliers and volume volatility, November 2011.
Lara Salahi, President’s Executive Order on Drug Shortage Draws Mixed Reactions, ABC News, 31 October 2011.
Martha Burk, Congress should Puncture this Cartel, Huffington Post, 29 September 2011.
Editorial, Shortage of Vital Drugs, New York Times, 26 August 2011
Gardiner Harris, US scrambling, New York Times, 19 August 2011
Ezekiel Emanuel, Cancer drugs, effective but scarce. The New York Times, Sunday Review, 6 July 2011.
Phil Taylor, “FDA Interview [with Rick Friedman, director of the manufacturing and product quality division at the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER)]: Is Pharma Getting Worse at Manufacturing?” INPharm News, 29 September 2010
Institute for Safe Medication Practices, Drug shortages: nation survey reveals high level of frustration, low level of safety, 23 September 2010
E R. Dorsey et al. Selegiline shortage: Causes and costs of a generic drug shortage, Neurology; 73(3): 213–217, 21 July 2009.
Walt Bogdanich, The drug scare that exposed a world of hurt [heparin contamination], New York Times, 20 March 2008.
Gardiner Harris, In American Health Care, Drug Shortages Are Chronic, New York Times, 31 October 2004.