Media Reports – Africa

Africa — alphabetical by country

[International] Fiona Barry, Supersized Asia and Africa deal to make Merck pill but COVID drug shortage persists, Pharmaceutical Technology, 4 April 2022.

[International] Anon., Africa, Southeast Asia ask drug companies to share coronavirus vaccine knowledge, Washington Post, 1 March 2021.

[International] Stacey L. Adams, COVID-19 antimalarial shortages affected rheumatology patients’ physical, mental health, Healio, 7 November 2020. Report

[International] Kevin Kunzman, Rheumatic patients in Africa and Asia faced hydroxychlorquine shortagae due to COVID-19, HCP live, 3 November 2020.

[International] Leslie Young, WHO warns of critical shortage of HIV drugs due to coronavirus, GLobal News, 6 July 2020.

[International] Jordan Kelly-Linden, Malaria deaths could double this year due to shortages of life-saving drugs and equipment, Telegraph, 1 July 2020.

[International] South Centre, Intellectual Property and Access to Medicines,Training Paper 1, South Centre, 3 December 2019.

[International] Isabel Frost et al., Access Barriers to Antibiotics, Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy, 11 April 2019.

[International]  Anon., Lack of access to antibiotics is a a major global health challenge, Counsel & Heal, 1 May 2019. See CDDEP report here.

[Algeria] A. Nadir, Rupture de medicaments en Algérie: les malades du cancer n’auront-ils plus aucun espoir? Emergent Monde, 22 July 2022. See also here

[Algeria] Anon., Drug shortage: health minister pledges sanctions, Algérie Presse Service, 28 August 2019.

[Angola] Anon, En Angola, le fléau persistant et meurtrier du paludisme Sciences et Avenir, 7 March 2018.

[Botswana] Barne Piet, Parliament dismisses motion [for commission of inquiry] on drug shortage The Voice, 22 December 2022.

[Botswana] Kabelo Difolon., MPs doubts on causes of drug shortage, The Voice, 1 November 2022.

[Botswana] Kabelo Adamson, Madigele admits drug shortage in public hospitals, The Voice, 20 February 2019.

[Botswana] Ketumile Ramatiti, CMS blames suppliers for drug shortage, Weekend Post, 9 July 2018.

[Botswana] Ketumile Ramatiti, Ministry wants to reform [Princess] Marina [hospital], Weekend Post, 3 July 2018.

[Botswana] Bakani Mosojane, Francistown clinics hit by shortage of drugs, Patriot, 11 June 2018.

[Botswana] Kabo Keaketswe, Okavanobo DHMT in short of drugs supply,, 5 June 2018.

[Botswana] Tsaone Basimanebotlhe, Drug shortage hits Tlokweng clinics, Mmegi online, 28 February 2018.

[Botswana] Pini Bothoko, Mkagato aware of drug shortages, MMegionline, 2 August 2017.

[Botswana] Anon. No Plans for clinics to operate 24 hours, All, 20 December 2015.

[Congo] Rose Shennan, Ebola vaccine new medicatiocauses controversy aftera shortage of supply, Edinburgh News, 6 August 2019.

[Egypt] Asmaa Mostafa., Why Egyptians are struggling to find their medicine, Ahram, 26 December 2023.

[Egypt] Anon., Local companies fulfill 90% of Egypts needs of medicinal drugs, Egypt TOday, 5 November 2022.

[Egypt] Al Masry Al Youm, Cabinet refutes claims that Egypt is short on coronavirus treatment drugs, Egypt Independent, 10 November 2020.

[Egypt] Nourhan Zaki, Egyptian drug authority denise shortage of medications, Egypt Today, 2 October 2020.

[Egypt] Anon., A drug delivery app takes pharmacy to the next level, KAWA, 11 August 2020.

[Egypt] Al-Masry Al Youm, Egyptian drug authority cautions against excessive use of vitamins [and stockpiling] Egypt Independent, 4 June 2020.

[Egypt] Hadeer el-Mahdawy, As COVID-19 builds, pharmacy shelves run out of vital drugs, Mada Mas, 13 April 2020.

[Egypt] Samar Samir, Prices of some medicines soar despite currency stability against US dollar, Egypt Today, 11 May 2019.

[Egypt] Al-Masry Al-Youm, Amid drug shortage, Egyptian Facebook users launch charity, Egypt Independent, 24 September 2018.

[Egypt] Marina Gamil, Egypt’s insulin stock to suffice patients’ need for 4 months, Egypt Today, 13 April 2018.

[Egypt] Anon. Pharmaceutical drug prices to increase by up to 50% [due to shortages] says health ministry official, Egypt Independent, 17 January 2018.

[Egypt] Farah Tawfeek, Ex-president of state-owned drug company faces imprisonment for casuing penicillin shortage crisis, Egypt Independent, 20 December 2017.

[Egypt] Al-Masry Al-Youm, Public pharmaceutical company former chief accused of causing penicillin shortage, Egypt Independent, 19 December 2017.

[Egypt] Al Masry Al Youm, Drug shortage crisis hits Egypt again, Egypt Independent, 17 December 2017.

[Egypt] Al-Masry Al Youm, Drug shortages hit Egypt, patients resort to blackmarket, Egypt Independent, 27 September 2017.

[Egypt] Al-Masry Al Youm, Health ministry says drug shortage figures aim to cause confusion, Egypt Independent, 20 September 2017.

[Egypt] Al-Masry Al Youm, Rights watchdog detects shortage of 1420 drugs in August, Egypt Independent, 18 September 2017.

[Egypt] Nayrouz Talaat, Online platforms help sick Egyptians find drugs, Al Monitor, 22 February 2017.

[Egypt] Reuters, Egyptians go for herbal remedies as economic crisis causes drug shortage, Decca Chronicle, 16 January 2017.

[Egypt] Anon. Egypt is on right track after pounds fluctuation…[raising prices by 15% and 20% on local and imported medicines],,15 January 2017.

[Egypt] Dahlia Kohlaif et al., Egypt grapples with drug shortage brough on by currency devaluation, Wall Street Journal, 11 December 2016.

[Egypt] Farid Farid, Egyptians turn Twitter into a pharmacy during nationwide drug shortage, Motherboard, 6 December 2016. See also Vice.

[Egypt] Mohammed Saied, Why can’t Egyptians get the drugs they need? Al-Monitor, 29 November 2016.

[Egypt] Justin Stoltzfus, Egypt wrestles with critical drug shortages [insulin, cancer drugs, contraceptives], Gulf News, 27 November 2016.

[Egypt] Arwa Gaballa, Currency drop hits Egypt’s medicine supplies, angering public, Reuters, 22 November 2016. See also here.

[Egypt] Hend El Bahary, Egyptian patients scream amid life-saving drug shortages, Egypt  Independent, 22 November 2016.

[Egypt] Al-Masry Al Youm, Cabinet think tank denies shortage in insulin supply, Egypt Independent, 11 November 2016.

[Egypt] Michelle Maskaly, Drug shortage prompts 20% price increase, Healthcare packaging, 17 May 2016.

[Egypt] Anon. Egypt raises drug prices to battle shortage, AHRAMonline, 16 May 2016. See also Reuters.

[Egypt] Al-Masry Al-Youm, Dollar crisis hits pharma industry, causing shortages possible production halt, Egypt Independent, 18 March 2016.

[Egypt] PM Editor, Egypt pharmacies missing medications due to dollar crisis, Palestine Telegraph, 13 March 2016.

[Egypt] Mostapha Hashem, In Egypt medicines disappear from shelves as dollar crisis bites, Reuters, 10 February 2016.

[Egypt] Amina Abdul Salam, New factory to combat drug shortage, The Egyptian Gazette, 25 June 2013.

[Eswatini] Silas Isenjia, Catholic entity in Eswatini perturbed by stockouts of medicine, call for urgent action, Acia Africa, 10 February 2024

[Ethiopia] O. Ogunjuyibe. Ethiopia’s forex crisis is causing a drug shortage, Ventures Africa, 22 March 2024. See also here

[Ethiopia] Anon, Tigray patients dying because of drug shortages, New Delhi Times, 6 January 2022.

[Ethiopia] Anon., Pharmaceutical manufacturers performing poorly due to currency shortages, Ezega News, 22 May 2019.

[Equatorial Guinea] Samuel Obiang, Equatorial Guinea struggles with drugs shortage as pandemic strikes, Yahoo News, 7 August 2021. See also here

[Gambia] Momodou Jawo, I want to leave a good legacy not to enrich myself [denies shortages], The Point, 13 December 2020.

[Gambia] Kebba Jeffang, When actions contradict policy: horrific healthcare services in Gambia, Foroyaa Newspaper, December 2018. See also here.

[Gambia] Fatou B.Cham, Shortage of medicines may soon be history [National drug policy to ensure essential medicines supply]. The Point, August 2017.

[Ghana] Anon., Shortage of antiretroviral drugs looms: over 200 containers stuck at port, Ghana Web, 16 March 2024.

[Ghana] Anon., Drug shortage looming, Ghana Web, 25 August 2022.

[Ghana] Ridwan Karim Dini-Osman, Pregnant women, children with HIV in Ghana struggle to access medicine, The World, 14 September 2021.

[Ghana] Martina Bugri, Northern region experiences shortage of sulfaoxine for pregnant women, My Joy Online, 11 March 2021.

[Ghana] Anon., Malaria in pregnancy may spike over shortage of suplhadoxine-pyramethamine, Modern Ghana, 25 February 2021. See also here

[Ghana] Anon., Antiretroviral drug runs out; 3 patients compelled to share one bottle, Modern Ghana, 5 December 2020.

[Ghana] Editorial, Let’s avert shortage of anti-retroviral drugs, Ghana Times, 25 July 2020. See also here

[Ghana] Albert Futukpor, Christian Children’s Fund donates drugs to Health Directorate, Ghana News  Agency, 28 January 2020 See also here.

[Ghana] Daniel Kaku, Tobain Foundation gives drugs to Ampain Refugee Camp, Modern Ghana, 26 June 2019.

[Ghana]  Daniel Kaku, Shortage of drugs hit Ampain Refugee Camp in Ellembelle, Ghana Web, 25 June 2019.

[Ghana] Anon., Tema: drug shortage hts Tetteh-Ocloo School for the Deaf, Modern Ghana, 16 October 2018.

[Ghana] Eric Joe Ayivi, Maternal deaths loom in B/A as drug shortage hits maternity home, Modern Ghana, 14 December 2017.

[Ghana] Abdul Karim Naatogmah, Drug shortage affecting mentally ill persons, CitiFM online, 9 November 2017.

[Ghana] Anon. Drug shortage hits Boamang health centre, Ghanaweb, 26 May 2017.

[Ghana] Anon. Phinas pharmacy intervenes in psychiatric hospital drug shortage, Ghanaweb, 26 October 2016.

[Ghana] Anon., Drug shortage hits Sunyani Central Prisons Infirmary, Ghanaweb, 24 June 2016.

[Ghana] Anon., HIV campaign in Western region in danger, Ghanaweb, 28 October 2015,

[Ghana] Anon., Nandom district runs out of pharmaceuticals,, 25 July 2015.

[Ghana] Efua Idan Osam, We need antiretroviral drugs now–HIV patients, Citifmonline, 15 May 2015.

[Ghana] Graphic Online, Drug shortage hits Accra Psychiatric Hospital, Citi FM Online, 26 August 2014.

[Ghana] Ghana Web, Korle-Bu faces drug shortage [magnesium sulphate], GhanaWeb, 21 July 2014

[Ghana] Ghana Web, HIV patients risk developing residence as drug shortage hits Ghana, HIV Haven, 21 June 2012.

[Kenya] John Muchangi, Distributors explain shortage, high cost of asthma inhalers, Star, 24 January 2024.

[Kenya] Mercy Kahenda, Fear of new TB infections after drugs shortage hits sixth month, The Standard Health, 14 October 2023.

[Kenya] Leon Lidigu, Crisis as Kemsa runs out of essential dislysis, ICU, surgical drugs, Nation, 17 September 2023.

[Kenya] Nikko Tanui, Shock of only three types of drugs at referral hospital. Standard Media, 7 September 2022. See also here

[Kenya] Alice Wanjiru, Goernor moves to address drugs shortage,Kenya News,  2 September 2022.

[Kenya] Irungo Mwangi, Kirinyaga County unveils new health management system, [real time measures of stock] Kenya News, 13 February 2021.

[Kenya] Collins Omulo, KEMSA distances itself from NMS, Cirty Hall drug shortage,, 17 September 2021.

[Kenya] Anon., Crisis looms in city health centres, Business Daily, 15 September 2021.

[Kenya] Lucy Mkanyika, Taita county denies shortage of essential drugs in health facilities, allAfrica, 3 September 2021.

[Kenya] Anon., KEMMSA delivers Sh90 million drugs to Garissa, Kenya News Agency, 27 July 2021. See also here

[Kenya] Ashlee Banks, Dispute between US Aid Agency and Kenya causing HIV drug shortage, Essence, 27 April 2021. See also here, here

[Kenya] Tom Odula, HIV drugs run short in Kenya, Star Tribune, 24 April 2021. See also here

[Kenya] BBC, Kenya ends tussle causing HIV drugs shortage [eliminates tax on donation], My Joy online, 7 April 2021. See also here, here, here, here, here, here

[Kenya] Raquel Mulgai, Govt, USAID tax row stalls distribution of ARV drugs, Citizen TV, 5 April 2021.

[Kenya] Gatonye Gathura, NGOs protest America plan to slash HIV funding again, Standard Health, 2 April 2021. 

[Kenya] John Munchangi, Babies to suffer most in Sh90m ARV tax stand off, Star, 2 April 2021.

[Kenya] Wycliffe Nyamasege, Alarm as people living with HIV decry shortage of ARV drugs in Kenya, Kahawa Tungu [bitter-sweet], 23 March 2021. See also here here and  here

[Kenya] Mulu Nzivo et al., Patients decry shortage of drugs in Kajiado [for 6 mos], Kenya News Agency, 19 March 2021.

[Kenya] Mercy Kahenda et al. Why HIV patients are scared of COVID-19, Standard, 15 March 2021.

[Kenya] Stanley Njenga, Kiambu upgrading health facilities in heightened war on diseases, The Star, 28 January 2021.

[Kenya] Angela Oketch, Lack of HIV lifesaving drug septin puts patients at risk, as govt cites supply nitches, AllAfrica, 1 December 2020.

[Kenya] Ian Omondi, 22 new COVID-19 cases confirmed as health ministry notes drug shortage, CITIZEN TV, 5 October 2020.

[Kenya] Angela Oketch, Lives at risk as public hospitals run out of ARVs,, 8 September 2020.

[Kenya] Mactilda Mbenywe, Pregnant women miss vital malaria medicine, The Standard, 22 August 2020.

[Kenya] Editorial, Fix Kemsa once and for all to end drug woes [other diseases neglected], The Standard, 18 August 2020.

[Kenya] Angela Oketch, KEMSA procures PPEs at double market price, Daily Nation, 14 August 2020.

[Kenya] Elizabeth Ojina, Key cerebral palsy drug [rivotril] vanishes from shelves, Daily Nation, 18 July 2020.

[Kenya] Angela Oketch, Shortage of crucial cancer drug [morphine] blamed on delay to order, Daily Nation, 19 February 2020.

[Kenya] Edith Chepng’eno, Kemsa on spot as drug shortage bites in N Rift: medical agency blamed, Daily Nation, 27 January 2020.

[Kenya] Harold Odhlambo et al, Stock-outs lead to drug resistance among patients, The Standard, 30 November 2019.

[Kenya] Jeremiah Mueni, Public health facilities in Nairobi to get drugs from KEMSA, Capital News, 26 October 2019.

[Kenya] Elizabeth Merab, Pharmacists threaten to increase cost of drugs, Nation, 10 October 2019.

[Kenya] Lameck Baraza, MP wants Kemsa paid by Treasury to end drug shortages in county hospitals, Star, 1 October 2019.

[Kenya] Isaac Kaledzi, Why Kenya faces imminent drug shortage, Africa Feeds, 30 September 2019.

[Kenya] Magdalene Saya, Drug distributors seek pre-shipment inspection exemption, Star, 27 September 2019.

[Kenya] Jane Cherotich, Meet governors to resolve country cash crisis, Star, 22 August 2019.

[Kenya] Martin Ombima, Medics under watch over drug theft in Vihiga, The Star, 9 August 2019.

[Kenya] Anon. Leaders raise concern over shortage of drugs, Kenya News Agency, 8 August 2019.

[Kenya] Hesborn Etyang, Patients decry shortage of drugs in Turkana, The Star, 10 August 2019.

[Kenya] Graham Kajilwa, No ARV shortage, assures ministry The Standard, 23 June 2019.

[Kenya] Stephen Russo, Scheme hatched to prevent drug theft, The Standard, 5 July 2019.

[Kenya] Maureen Kinyanjui, City Hall now targets year-round supply of drugs to end shortage crisses, Star, 19 June 2019.

[Kenya] Graham Kajilwa, Why simple STIs may soon lack drugs, The Standard, 10 June 2019.

[Kenya] Caleb Kingwara, Hospital runs out of drugs, The Standard, 7 June 2019.

[Kenya] Olivia Odhiambo, Siaya public hospitals hit by drug shortage, The Standard, 29 May 2019.

[Kenya] Mark Mwithaga, Samburu County hospital runs out of TB drugs, Pulse Kenya, 9 May 2019.

[Kenya] Carson Jnr, Crisis at Masalani hospital over acute drug shortage, Hivisasa, 20 April 2019.

[Kenya] Aggrey Omboki, Nairobi tops debt list as drug shortage looms, Daily Nation, 16 April 2019.

[Kenya] Eddy Mwanza, Kenya’s top drug supplier issues warning, Kenyans, 16 April 2019.

[Kenya] Amina Wako, Revealed: Cause of drugs shortage in Nairobi health facilities [gov’t did not pay], Nairobi News, 2 April 2019.

[Kenya] Collins Omulo, City hospitals battling drugs shortage as Sonko donates food in West Pokot, AllAfrica, 27 March 2019. See also here and here, suppliers, and here re theft.

[Kenya] John Muchangi, Hospitals ordered to put patients on the new ARV to avert shortage of drug, Star, 13 February 2019.

[Kenya] Anon., Drug shortage hits Mama Lucy hospital patients forced to leave as crisis bites, 29 January 2019.

[Kenya] Angela Oketch, Key hurdles likely to derail grand healthcare plan, Daily Nation, 3 December 2018.

[Kenya] Hiton Otenyo, Crisis as massive drug shortage hits Kakamega County Hospital, The Star, 8 November 2018. See also here

[Kenya] Anon., Ministry has adequate HIV drugs,, test kits, Daily Nation, 20 August 2018.

[Kenya] Anon., Kemsa denies cutting off supplies to counties, Daily Nation, 10 August 2018. See also here.

[Kenya] Anon., Crisis looms as hospitals go without drugs, Daily Nation, 4 August 2018. See also here, and here

[Kenya] James Muchai, Deputy governor dismiss claims of drug shortage in Kwale, Kenya News Agency, 26 July 2018. See also here.

[Kenya] Ernest Cornel, County declares war on medicine cartels, The Star Kenya, 12 April 2018.

[Kenya] Elvanis Ronoh, Why there will be no more shortage of drugs in county health facility,, 14 March 2018. See also here.

[Kenya] Joseph Muchiri, Embu MCAs accuse medics of attending to patients while drunk [hoarding drugs], The Standard, 1 March 2018.

[Kenya] Lucy Mkanyika, Medics decry lack of equipment in Voi public hospitals, Daily Nation, 28 February 2018.

[Kenya] John Nalianya, Bungoma buys Sh47m drugs to end shortage, The Star, 13 February 2018.

[Kenya] Rachel Atieno, Uasin Gishu health CeC proposes measures to curb drug shortages, HIVsasa, 1 February 2018.

[Kenya] Alex Njeru, Drugs shortage hits Tharaki-Nithi hospitals, The Nation, 18 December 2017.

[Kenya] John Nalianya, Bungoma hospitals hit by drug shortage, The Star, 19 January 2017.

[Kenya] Dennis N, County Health Chief Officer allays fears of drug shortages, hivisasa, 22 November 2016.

[Kenya] Silah Koskei, Uasin Gishu county probe unearths cause of drug shortage [underfunding; distribution problems], The Standard, 11 October 2016.

[Kenya] Johusa Khisa, Probe into hospital drug shortage begins, hivisasa, 8 September 2016.

[Kenya] Jackson Brighton, Delay of funds to counties a result of drug shortages–Maangi, hivisasa, 19 August 2016.

[Kenya] Anon., Kemsa signs drug agreement with Bungoma County [re essential medicines], Standard digital, 11 August 2016.

[Kenya] Dalton Nyabundi, Digital platform to reduce medicine theft in15 counties, Standard digital, 2 August 2016.

[Kenya] Dickens Luvanda, Uasin Gishu to establish drug store in the county, hivisasa, 17 July 2016

[Kenya] Graham Kajitwa, Shortage of vital drug [tratuzumab] pushes cancer patients beyond their means, Standard media, 3 July 2018.

[Kenya] Philemon Komen, KEMSA cuts off supply of drugs over debt, hivisasa, 24 June 2016.

[Kenya] William Maina, Nyamira residnets lament over drug shortage in hospitals, hivisasa, 27 May 2016.

[Kenya] Abuga Makori, jnr, Ongwae flags off drugs to county dispensaries, Kisii County News,, 23 March 2016.

[Kenya] Elisha Otieno, Drugs for Migori Hospital sold in Tanzania. all, 21 March 2016.

[Kenya] Felix Kipkemoi, Rutto blames KeMSA [Kenya Medical Supplies Agency] for drug shortage, The Star, 14 March 2016.

[Kenya] Anon., Acute drug shortage hits public hospitals in Laikipia, Kenya Broadcasting Company, 3 November 2015.

[Kenya] Eunice Kilonzo, Patients relieved as kidney drugs arrive., 2 October 2015.

[Kenya] Angela Oketch, Power games blamed for shortage of drugs, Daily Nation, 30 October 2014.

[Kenya] R. K. Sudoi et al, The magnitude and trend of artemether-lumefantrine stock-outs at public health facilities in Kenya, Malaria Journal 10.1186: 8 February 2012.

[Liberia] Ishmael F. Menkor,  Nimba public health centers in crisis, Liberian Observer, 3 March 2022.

[Liberia] Ishmael F. Menkor, Ganta leprosy & TB centre experiences drug shortage, Liberian Observer, 22 March 2021.

[Liberia] Ishmael F. Menkor, Amidst COVID-19 medical facilities in Nimba face shortage of drugs, Liberian Observer, 15 July 2020.

[Liberia] Anon., Maternal health servives under stress amidst COVID-19, Liberian Observer, 13 July 2020.

[Liberia] AFP, Critical condition: Liberia’s hospitals battle deadly shortages, The East African, 4 July 2019. See also here.

[Liberia] Jefferson Daryoue, Margibi’s Rep Ivar Jones distributes medical drugs to public health facilities, The Bush Chicken, 15 February 2019.

[Liberia] Anon., Lack of drugs, fuel at Gov’t hospitals claims lawmakers’ attention, Front Page Africa, 8 February 2019. See also herehere, and here.

[Liberia], Anon., Health Minister Jallah on drug shortage, New Dawn, 6 February 2019.

[Liberia] Anon., Major referral hospitals on the brink of shutdown, Front Page Africa, 6 February 2019.

[Liberia] Thomas Domah, Government hospital turns prescription center, The New Dawn, 22 January 2019.

[Liberia] Anon., Liberians call for reintroduction of revolving drugs fund in health sector, Front Page Africa, 6 November 2018.

[Liberia] Joseph Titus Yekeryan, Drug shortage hits Naama Clinic in Bong, New Dawn, 26 June 2018.

[Liberia] Alpha Daffae Senkpeni, FPA Major public health center in dire strait – risks collapse due to limited budgetary support, Front Page Africa Online, 18 Aprl 2018.

[Liberia] Hannah Geterminah, Tapitta residents seek help for JFD hospital, 22 Daily Observer, May 2018.

[Liberia] Gbatemah Senah, Efforts announced to end shortage of HIV drugs, The Bush Chicken, 30 May 2018.

[Liberia] Arrington Ballah, Health workers meetin in Nimba to brainstorm solutions to drug shortages, The Bush Chicken, 9 April 2018

[Liberia] Sampson David, Bassa’s 5th district rep. Goshua outlinesplans to address drug shortages, The Bush Chicken, 11 March 2018.

[Liberia] Joseph Titus Yekeryan, Local clinic suffers drug shortage in Bong [paracetomol, worm medicine] The New Dawn, 5 January 2018.

[Liberia] Zeze Ballah, Dahn”drugs supply chain a major challenge to health ministry, The Bush Chicken, 28 September 2017.

[Liberia] Jefferson Daryoue, Candidate Ivar Jones donates drugs to health facilities ahead of campaigning, Bush Chicken, 31 July 2017.

[Liberia] Jefferson Daryoue, Drugs shortage hits Dolo Town health center, Bush Chicken, 5 July 2017.

[Liberia] Zeze Ballah, Battling epilepsy amid a drug shortage, The Bush Chicken, 2 May 2017.

[Liberia] Selena N. Lomax, Tellewoyan Hospital in Lofa county suffers drugs shortage, Front Page Africa, 10 December 2016. See also allAfrica.

[Liberia] Anon. Locals in Zorcor decry drug shortage at Curran Lutheran hospital, Front Page Africa online, nd approx. 15 June 2016.

[Liberia] Kerry Sheridan. Shortage of malaria drug points to better treatment for Ebola [MSF study], Yahoo News, 6 January 2016.

[Liberia] Winston W. Parley, Liberia: More drugs shortage still at central prison, All Africa, 9 January 2014.

[Libya] Safa Alharathy, 70 people with AIDS die due to lack of medicines, The Libya Observer, 7 May 2018.

[Libya] Ismail Akwei, Libya’s HIV patients bear brunt of drug shortages despite WHO support, Africa News, 4 January 2017.

[Malawi] Charles Pensulo, Pregnant women at risk in Malawi as drug shortage precents caesareans, The Guardian, 21 November 2021. See also here

[Malawi] Chisomo Phiri, Health facilities face acute stockouts of essential medicines, MAlawi 24, 25 October 2021. See also here

[Malawi] Owen Kamula, Hospitals hit with shortage of essential supplies, allAfrica, 2 September 2021.

[Malawi] Wanga Gwede, MCP urges Malwi govt to end precentable deaths, improve health service delivery,, 26 February 2020

[Malawi] Steve Nhlane, 10 Malawi chiefs as tourists in Zambia, Malawi Nyasa Times, 21 July 2018.

[Malawi] Zawadi Chilunga, Muluzi says will table bill to tackle theft of medical drugs in Malawi hospitals, Nysasa Times, 4 December 2017.

[Malawi] Anon., Indian doctors in Malawi to assist patients,, 3 March 2017.

[Malawi] Blessings Kang’Ombe, Health rights campaigners call for boost in budgetary support [for essential medicines], Capital Radio, 20 February 2017.

[Malawi] Victoria Milanzi, Malawi has enough drugs,, 8 February 2017.

[Malawi] Anon. Medical drug shortages hit Malawi public hospitals as DHOs exhaust budgets, Nyasa Times, 5 February 2017.

[Malawi] Martha Chikoti, 2016 has been a difficult year–nurses,, 24 December 2016.

[Malawi] Kelvin Tembo, Malawi yet to introduce child friends TB drugs, Capital Radio Malawi, 25 November 2016.

[Malawi] Mwayi Mkandawire, Drug theft continues three arrested in Dedza, Malawi 24, 16 June 2016.

[Malawi] Archangel Nzangaya, Trouble! Mwanza hospital hit by drug shortage, Malawi 24, 17 May 2016.

[Malawi] Elita Soko, Malawi Govt urged to step up fight against drug theft, Capital Radio, 3 May 2016.

[Malawi] Chinsisi Moyo, Drug shortage resurfaces at Malawi’s biggest hospital, Capital Radio Malawi, 20 April 2016.

[Malawi] Martha Chikoti, Malawian health workers behind drug shortage, Malawi 24, 25 February 2016.

[Malawi] Prince Henderson, CCJP expresses worry over social problems [food and drugs], Nyasa Times, 6 February 2016.

[Malawi] Maurice Nkawihe, Health worker arrested over drug theft, Nyasa Times, 27 January 2016.

[Malawi] Alfred Chauwa Government shocked with drug shortage reports, Nyasa Times, 26 December 2015.

[Malawi] Owen Khamula, Gagging of Public hospital spokespersons is retrogressive, Nyasa Times, 27 October 205.

[Malawi] Happy Arold Soko, Malawi admires Zambia [orders prayers for drug shortage and other woes],, 20 October 2015.

[Malawi] Staff Reporter, Drug shortage hits Malawi public hospitals, Nyasa Times, 24 March 2015.

[Malawi] Hudson Mphande, KCH suspends elective surgeries: Malawi drug shortage ‘crisis’, Nyasa Times, 19 August 2014.

[Malawi] Alfred Chauwa, Drug shortage to continue plague Malawi health care, Nyasa Times, 10 August 2014.

[Malawi] Imani M. Cheers, Preventing drug shortages with cell phones in Malawi, PBS NewsHour, 8 May 2013.

[Malawi] Rex Chikoko, Drug shortage hits Malawi, Africa Review, 1 September 2011.

[Malawi] Claire Ngozo, Painkillers prescribed for malaria amid drug shortage. All Africa, 16 November 2011.

[Malawi] Rebecca Chimjeka, Donors Save Malawi on drug shortage,, 8 January 2012.

[Morocco] Basma el Atti, Morocco pharmacists protest COVID-19 crisis, amid ministry denials of drug shortages, Al Araby, 17 Janaury 2022.

[Morocco] Khadija Khettou, Santé; Le zinc et la vitamine C en rupture dans les pharmacies, Hespress, 28 October 2020.

[Mauritius], Anon., Animaux, les vétérinaires manquent de produits euthanasiants, L’Express, 29 October 2020.

[Morocco] Latifa Babas, Pharmacies warn of COVID-19 drug shortages, Yabiladi, 1 September 2020. Denied

[Morocco] Chaima Lahsini, Pediatric drug shortage: Ministry of health denies stock-out, says allegations based on false data, Morocco World News, 5 August 2017.

[Namibia] Charlotte Nambadja, Asthma patients fear COVID-19 amid shortage of inhalers, The Namibian, 7 July 2020. See also here

[Namibia] O Ngutjinazo et al, Namibian hospitals in ‘ICU’ over shortages of essential, Daily Maverick, 3 November 2019.

[Namibia] Adam Harman et al.Psychiatric centre battles medicine shortage, The Namibian, 5 August 2019.

[Namibia] Eveline de Klerk, Coast faces hepatitis drug shortage, New Era, 20 March 2018. See also here

[Namibia] Alvine Kapitako, Shortage of ARV’s at clinic, hospital, New Era, 1 April 2016.

[Namibia] Kuzeeko Tjitemisa, National pain over drug shortages. All Africa, 10 July 2014.

[Namibia] Theresia Tjihenuna, Namibia: Drugs shortage triggers panic, All Africa, 6 June 2014.

[Namibia] Theresia Tjihenuna, Namibia: Ministry denies drug shortage, All Africa, 23 August 2013.

[Namibia] Theresia Tjihenuna, Drug shortage hits Govt medical stores, The Namibian, 22 August 2013.

[Nigeria] NE Abdulrasheed, Nigeria’s drug crisis: the unintended consequence of economic policies, BNN, 14 January 2024.

[Nigeria] U Zaccheus, GSK exit sparks 1000% surge in drug prices, Brandspurng, 19 November 2023. See also here here

[Nigeria] Anon., Drug supply shortage in Nigeria during COVID-19. Doc wire news, 23 January 2021.

[Nigeria] Stanley Akpunonu, Pharmacists canvass modern healthcare system, Guardian, 29 October 2020.

[Nigeria] Patience Ivie Ihejirika, Drug security: Why Nigeria must boost local production, Leadership, 6 October 2020.

[Nigeria] Anon., Nigeria, 72 others risk stock-out of HIV drugs because of COVID-19, Leadership, 7 July 2020.

[Nigeria] Anon., Waiver on import duty for medical supplies, The Sun, 30 May 2020.

[Nigeria] Anon., NAFDAC warns against use of chloroquine, Premium Times, 14 May 2020.

[Nigeria] Anon., Interview with Moje Adeyeye over shortages and drug security and COVID, Punch NG, 10 May 2020.

[Nigeria] Anon., Drug scarcity imminent by August manufacturers warn, The Tide, 23 March 2020. See also here.

[Nigeria] Anon., Nigeria press agog with fear of drug shortage, Journal du Cameroun, 5 March 2020.

[Nigeria] Anon., Nigeria faces drugs shortage due to Coronavirus, NAFDAC warns, The Nation 18 February 2020. See also here and here and here and here.

[Nigeria] Anon., 80 sickle cell patients died due to blood [and drug] shortage in Kano, Pulse, 9 January 2020.  See also here and here. On the problem of blood donation in Nigeria see here [a 2012 report that shows how paid blood is anemic].

[Nigeria] Patience Ivie Ihejirika, Expert raises concern over increasing rate of neurological diseases, brain disorders, Leadership, 3 December 2019.

[Nigeria] Ujunwa Atueyi, Universities where students lack access to diagnoses, drugs, Guardian, 24 July 2019.

[Nigeria] Kelvin Okereafor, Nigeria receives 4000 vials of anti-snake venom drugs after months of paucity, Nigerian Observer, 28 April 2019. See also here and here.

[Nigeria] Abullateef Aliyu, Shortage of drugs threatens glaucoma patients, Daily Trust, 5 February 2019.

[Nigeria] Sola Ogundipe, Anxiety as WHO alerts on spread of HIV drug resistance, allAfrica, 25 July 2017.

[Nigeria] Martins Ifije, PSN: lack of medicine, vaccines now security risks to Nigeria, This Day, 30 November 2017.

[Nigeria] Anon., [Pharmacists call on govt to] Set up ad hoc committee on drug scarcity, Daily Trust, 5 September 2016.

[Nigeria] Kayode Omoyele, Naira devalutation causing drug shortage — Pharmacists, Today, 19 August 2016.

[Nigeria] Taiwo Adeniyi et al., Patients lament shortage of drugs at Asokoro, Maitama hospital, Daily Trust, 29 June 2016. See also here.

[Nigeria] Bukola Adebayo, Manufacturers warm Nigerians of looming drug shortage, Punch, 10 February 2016.

[Rwanda] Anon., Drug supply situation in Rwanda during COVID-19, docwire news, 21 January 2021. See also J Pharm Policy Pract. 2021 Jan 20;14(1):12. doi: 10.1186/s40545-021-00301-2.

[Senegal] Krishnan Guru-Murthy, Unreported world: Africa’s drug scandal [on morphine shortages, Channel 4 News, 29 May 2014.

[Sierra Leone] Kemo Cham, The way forward for the Malaria Media Coalition, Politico, 1 October 2020.

[Sierra Leone] Chemo Cham, Community leaders deliberate on development referral pathways in southern SL, Politico SL, 27 February 2020.

[Sierra Leone] Anon., The tragedy of the homeless and mentally ill, Journal du Cameroun, 4 November 2019.

[Sierra Leone] Ibrahim Tarawallie, China donates medical supplies…AllAfrica, 16 January 2019.

[Sierra Leone] Anon.,  Freetown:campaigners make HIV/AIDS funding appeal, Journal du Cameroun, 2 December 2017.

[South Africa] Ufrieda Ho, Morphine shortages leave SA patients in pain, News 24, 29 September 2022.

[South Africa] Faith Mutizira, Essential medicines shhortage, Health e-News, 8 September 2022.

[South Africa] Tamar Kahn, Shortage of birth control medication putting state health patients at risk, Business Live, 20 August 2022. See also here, 

[South Africa] Kim Harrisburg,  Facing hormone [testosterone] shortages South Africa’s trans men try black market, Gay Times, 21 January 2022. See also here

[South Africa] Jan Bornman, Testosterone shortage puts trans men at risk, New Frame, 23 November 2021. Also here

[South Africa] Reuters, President Ramaphosa says protests could lead to medicine, food shortage, Devdiscourse, 13 July 2021.

[South Africa] Janice Kew, South Africa approves parasite drug [ivermectin] to treat coronavirus patients, Bloomberg, 27 January 2021.

[South Africa] Vuyo Mkize, Shortage of psychiatric meds has begun, News 24 City Press, 22 November 2020.

[South Africa] Bongani Nkosi, Mental health patients hit hard by drug medicaltion woes due to COVID-19, IOL, 19 November 2020.

[South Africa] Laura Lopez Gonzalez, Mental health; are medicine shortages fueling a shadow epidemic? AllAfrica, 23 September 2020. See also here

[South Africa] Kathryn Cleary, COVID-19 pandemic puts pressure on medicine supply, Health 24, 3 June 2020. See also here and here

[South Africa] Tshego Lepule, Coronavirus tracking teams beefed up despite testingkits shortage, IOL, 22 March 2020.

[South Africa] Spotlight, Coronavirus is South Africa prepared for medicine shortages, Health 24, 18 MArch 2020.

[South Africa] Anon., Putting the U back into Universal Health Care: Do South Africans know what theNHI is, Health-e, 22 September 2019

[South Africa] Anon., Health Dept moves to counter antidepressant meds shortage,, 22 September 2019. See also here and here.

[South Africa] Katharine Child, Shortage of anti-psychotic and anti-depressant medicines to hit state hospitals, Times Live, 20 September 2019. See also here and here.

[South Africa] Mel Frykberg, Swatini psychiatric nurses threaten to release patients as drug shortages bit, IOL News, June2019.

[South Africa] Pontsho PIlane, Our lives; our dignity is not negotiable [shortage of anti-HIV drugs] Health-E, 11 June 2019. See also here, herehere, here, here, and here.

[South Africa] Robinson Nqola, Charlotte Maxete and Johannesburg hospitals face cancer drug shortage, EWN, 17 May 2019.

[South Africa] Chris/tine McLachlan, The Depo testosterone stock out must never repeat itself, Thought Leader, Mail & Guardian, 2 April 2019. See also here and here.

[South Africa] Carl Collison, Hormone drug [testosterone] shortage forces desperate solutions, Mail and Guardian, 15 March 2019. [Canada saw a similar shortage in 2012]

[South Africa] Mphathi Nxumalo, Shortage of drug puts thousands of AIDS patients at risk, IOL Daily News, 5 March 2019.

[South Africa] Mxolisi Mngadi, Cancer drugs shortage not our fault- KZN health department, News 24, 12 November 2018.

[South Africa] News 24, Health dept refuses to take responsibility for shortages of cancer drugs in KZN, All 4 Women, 13 November 2018.

[South Africa] Lyse Comins, Drug shortage for KZN patients, IOL, 8 November 2018.

[South Africa] Jo Robinson, Chronic medication shortages due to obsolete warehouse systems, Zoutnet, 13 October 2018.

[South Africa] Anon., Nationwide ARV shortage: Is South Africa heading for disaster? Health 24, 12 October 2018. See also here

[South Africa] Ntandoyenkosi Dlamini, IFP expresses concern over vaccine shortages fornewborn babies, South Coast Herald, 13 February 2018.

[South Africa] Anon. IFP Medicines Control Council must urgently approve Baccilus Calmette Guerin Vaccine [BCG],, 31 January 2018.

[South Africa] Thobeka Ngema, IFP urges Medicines Control Council to approve BCG vaccine, Daily News, 31 January 2017.

[South Africa] Anon., Medicine shortages fuel shock malaria outbreak, Daily Maverick, 12 May 2017.

[South Africa] Mpho Raborife, Crucial cancer drug [Cisplatin] imported to fill shortage, South Africa News, 31 January 2017. See denials here and here.

[South Africa] Bill Corcoran, Shortage of antiretroviral drugs hampering fight against AIDS, Irish Times, 26 June 2016.

[South Africa] Rejul Bejoy et al., Survey finds massive medicine shortages in clinics, Ground Up, 24 June 2016. See also here.

[South Africa] Anon. HIV drug shortage hits Gauteng, Soweto Urban, 8 January 2016.

[South Africa] Lungile Thamela, Medicine shortage: patients are still suffering, some in silence,, 27 October 2015.

[South Africa] Press Release, Concerned about the shortage of essential medication in KZN hospital, all, 8 October 2015.

[South Africa] Nquobile Tschile, Tshelanyemba Hospital is a sick facility, The Chronicle, 6 October 2015.

[South Africa] Whinsley Masara, TB drug shortage fears allayed, The Chronicle, 23 September 2015.

[South Africa] Dave Chambers, WhatsApp-a new source for medical drugs when stocks dry up, Business Day, 31 August 2017.

[South Africa] Anon. Is there or isn’t there a shortage of ARV’s in South Africa? Health24, 24 July 2015.

[South Africa], Mireille de Villiers, No plan to prevent shortages of crucial medication [for tb], The Citizen, 9 July 2015.

[South Africa] Ina Skosana, Drug shortages send rural patients back to home remedies, Mail and Guardian, 3 July 2015.

[South Africa] MSF, Drug shortages threaten progress made in the world’s largest HIV program, MSF, 11 June 2015.

[South Africa] Mia Malan, Survey uncovers shortages in critical medication, Mail & Guardian, 10 June 2015.

[South Africa] Thankdo Kubheka, Meeting called to avoid mass medicine shortage, Eyewitness News, 9 June 2015.

[South Africa] A. Furlong & N. Geffen, Where have all the medicines gone, long time passing? Daily Maverick, 8 June 2015.

[South Africa] APA, South African TV station apologizes to minister for erroneous report, StarAfrica, 2 June 2015.

[South Africa] Chelsea Pieterse, KZN hospitals running dry,, 1 June 2015.

[South Africa] Emily Corke, Health Minister: Business profits behind drug shortage, EyeWitness News, 24 May 2015.

[South Africa] Inkatha Freedom Party, Lack of an advanced warning system is the main cause of drug shortages, Press Release, All, 21 May 2015.

[South Africa] eNCA, ARV supply not in crisis [Health Department claims only one anti-retroviral is in short supply], eNCA, 21 May 2015.

[South Africa] Katharine Child, Dying for drugs, Times LIVE, 18 May 2015.

[South Africa] Anon., Drug shortage at Gauteng Hospital  [anesthetics, surgeries cancelled], The Citizen, 2 December 2014.

[South Africa] Katharine Child, Ritalin drug shortage will be resolved soon, Times Live, 5 September 2014.

[South Africa] Katharine Child, Drug shortages killing patients [irinotecan], Times Live, 28 July 2014.

[South Africa] SAPA, Chemo drug shortage halts treatment, IOL News, 23 April 2014.

[South Africa] Health & Science report, S. Africa minister denies shortage of HIV drugs, Onislam, 15 March 2014.

[South Africa] eNCA, Motlanthe visits HIV orphans n face of drug shortage protests, ENCA, 1 December 2013.

[South Africa] Tiisetso Motsoeneng, Half a million people affected by HIV/AIDS drug shortage in South Africa, MedCity News, 28 November 2013.

[South Africa] Pini Bothoko, Drug shortage undermines delivery clinics, MMEGI, 23 August 2013.

[South Africa] Ntando Makhubu, Drug shortage sparks health fears, Independent OnLine IOL News, 6 July 2013.

[South Africa] Sipokazi Fokazi, Drug shortage sparks desperation, IOL News, 12 July 2012.

[South Africa] Frank Maponya, ARVs shortage panic, The Sowetan, 7 May 2012.

[Sudan] Mahdi Garba, MSF raises concern over worsening humanitarian situation as Sudan crisis enters sixth month, Hum Angle, 14 October 2023.

[Sudan] TV5 Monde, Risque de pénurie de médicaments, Youtube, 1 May 2023. See also here

[Sudan] Khattab Hamad, Sudan faces second COVID-19 wave amid drug shortages and doctors’ strike, Global Voices, 8 December 2020.

[Sudan] Anon., Pharmacists warn of medicine shortage, Middle East Monitor, 4 November 2020.

[Sudan] Anon. Covid-19 and chikungunya on the rise in Sudan as drug supplies dwindle, Radio Dabanga, 8 October 2020.

[Sudan] Khattab Hamad, No medicine, no healing. Sudan’s pharmaceutical crisis, Global Voices, 18 June 2020. See also here and here

[Sudan] Anon., Doro refugees face food [and drug] shortage, Radio Tamazuj, 29 September 2016.

[Sudan] Anon., USAID responds to to Tamazuj report on drugs shortages in S. Sudan, Radio Tamazuj, 1 July 2016.

[Sudan] Anon., HIV drug shortage hits S. Sudan’s Boma state, Sudan Tribune, 20 June 2016.

[Sudan] Anon., Aweil hospital lacks drugs and equipment due to budget shortage, Radio Tamazuj, 15 June 2016.

[Sudan] Anon. Massive drug shortage puts lives at risk in South Sudan, Tasnim News, 8 April 2016.

Sudan] Katy Migiro, Lives at risk due to massive drug shortages in South Sudan, Thomson Reuters, 7 April 2016.

[Swaziland] Ntombe Mhlongo, Gov’t must prove ‘cagey’ political call, Times of Swaziland, 9 March 2024.

[Swaziland] Editorial, Every day it is the same thing, Times of Swaziland, 20 August 2023.

[Swaziland], S. Hlatshwayo, Lack of insulin leaves 3 dead, Times of Swaziland, 23 January 2023.

[Swaziland] Stanley Kumalo, There should be a 3 months buffer stock of drugs, Times of Swaziland, 3 October 2022.

[Swaziland] Nonduduzo Kunene, Govt rations contraceptive pills due to demand, Eswatini Observer, 11 July 2002. See also here

[Swaziland] Stanley Kumalo, MPs solution to drug shortage:  A vote of no confidence in cabinet, Times of Swaziland,9  June 2022.

[Swaziland] Thokozani Mamba, Lubombo referral hospital runs out of essential drugs [morphine, norepinephrine], TImes of Swaziland, 14  July 2021.

[Swaziland] Anon., Psychiatric patients escape hospital after riot over food. all, 4 December 2020.

[Swaziland] Kulile Thwala, Effects of pandemic, Times of Swaziland, 3 July 2020

[Swaziland] Pavan Kulkarni, Nurses in Swaziland seek urgent solution to drug and food shortage in hospitals [threaten strike], News Click, 27 June 2019.

[Swaziland] Anon., More deaths in Swaziland as government fails to pay medicine suppliers, All, 14 May 2019.

[Swaziland] Anon., Finance minister tables $1.7b budget, Journal du Cameroun, 1 March 2018.

[Swaziland] Anon. Health Crisis; blood supplies dry up [drug and vaccine shortages too],, 31 January 2018.

[Swaziland] Anon., Swazi nurses to strike over widespread drug shortages, Africa Times, 29 September 2017.

[[Swaziland] Lungelo Nkambule, Most hospitals now 90% stocked with drugs, Observer, 14 June 2017.

[Swaziland] Anon. Swazi Drug shortage crisis deepens., 23 May 2017.

[Swaziland] Mandla Luphondvo, No AIDS-free Swaziland without us [drug shortages for HIV], The Swazi Observer, 5 November 2015.

[Tanzania] Hilda Mhagama, Party pledges teamwork in process steel [and pharma] in Ligana,, 17 September 2020.

[Tanzania] Patty Magubira, Tanzania faces shortage of pain-relieving morphine, The East African, 26 March 2019.

[Tanzania] Louis Kolumbia, Don’t hide generic drugs’ name, The Citizen, 11 October 2018.

[Tanzania] Pius Rugonzibwa, Deep panic triggered as AIDS drug shortage hits,, 5 March 2018.

[Tanzania] Editorial, The Citizen, Shortage of drugs in gov’t facilities must be checked,, 27 September 2016.

[Tanzania] Harriet Kiama, Drug shortage haunts Bagamoyo hospital., 26 April 2016.

[Tanzania] Sanjito Msafiri, Bagamoyo in medicine shortage., 11 April 2016.

[Tanzania] Anon. We have a Sh500 billion drug shortage,, 5 January 2016.

[Tanzania] Abby Nkungu, Singida buys HIV/Aids drugs, Daily News, 14 December 2015.

[Tanzania] Patrick Kisembo, Queries raised about private drugs store in Tanzania, East African Business Week, 11 October 2015.

[Tanzania] Ashery Mkama, New Programme may curtail drug shortage,, 24 June 2015.

[Tunisia] Arianna Poletti, Tunisia’s medicine shortages drive people to Europe for drugs, EU Observer, 15 October 2023.

[Tunisia] Semia, LIste de 690 medicaments manquants dans les pharmacies, Tunisie Tribune, 19 December 2022.

[Tunisia] Anon., Drug shortage hits Tunisia, CGTN Youtube, 29 April 2022.

[Tunisia] Chahrazad Chamsi, La cheffe d service de pharmacie de l’hôptial Farhat Hached lance un cri de détresse. Tunisie numerique, 15 July 2021. See also here

[Tunisia] Anon. Will there be a new shortage of medicines in Tunisia? African Manager, 4 September 2020.

[Tunisia] Anon., Tunisians struggle as life-saving medicine shortage hits the country, The New Arab, December 2018.

[Tunisia] Malat Lakhal, Pénurie de médicaments en Tunisie: aux origines d’une maladie sans docteurs, Nawaat, 3 August 2018.

[Uganda] Anon. Acute drug shortage hits Kimengo Health Center III, THe Independent, 17 December 2023. See also here

[Uganda] Okello  Emmanueln, Acute drug shortage hits Kikuube health center, Uganda Radionetwork, 6 September 2022.

[Uganda] Tonny Abet, Protests as ARV drugs shortage hits Uganda, Monitor, 28 July 2022. See also here

[Uganda] Anon., No alternatives. Ugandans turn to herbs amid medicine shortage, Daily Sabah, 14 MArch 2022.

[Uganda] Anon., Hospitals in crisis, Daily Monitor, 20 September 2020.

[Uganda] Mudangha Kolyangha, Pallisa health units grapple with drug stock outs, allAfrica, 8 September 2021. See also here.

[Uganda] Godfrey Tugume, Ntungamo loses 4th medic to COVID as Kabale grapples with drug shortage, Chimpnews, 16 July 2021.

[Uganda] Felix Warom Okelo et al., Stolen govt drugs flood West Nile private clinics, Daily Monitor, 23 June 2021.

[Uganda] Anon., Pharmacies rationing Vitamin C tablet [and price hike], Independent, 5 January 2021. See also here

[Uganda] Simon Peter Emwamu, Katakwi protest bad roads, poor health services, Monitor, 9 December 2020. See also here

[Uganda] Agnes Kyotalengerire, Votes want govt to stock essential medicines, New Visions, 13 November 2020.

[Uganda] Brian Luwaga, Nakaseke Hospital hit by drug stock out, Uganda Radio Network, 4 November 2020.

[Uganda] Basaija Idd, Kilembe Health Center II suffers drug shortage due to high number of patients, Uganda Radionetwork, 11 October 2020.

[Uganda] Tobbias Jolly Owiny, Acholi health centres hit by drug shortage,, 7 October 2020.

[Uganda] Anon., Shortage of medical supplies cripples services at Kitgum hospital, The Independent, 20 August 2020. See also here

[Uganda] Okello Emmanuel, Drug shortage hits BIlso health century, Uganda Radio Network, 22 June 2020.

[Uganda] Talya Meyers, Childrens’ cancer drugs are scarce in Uganda, Direct relief, 14 May 2020. Refuted

[Uganda] Rajab Mokomboji, Mbara health centres lack drugs, Daily Monitor, 20 January 2020. See also here.

[Uganda] Paul Ssekandi et al., Patients left helpless as Lyantonde govt hospital enters week without drugs, Daily Monitor, 28 December 2019.

[Uganda] Tausi Nakata, Drug shortage hits Jinja mental hospital, Daily Monitor, 26 November 2019.

[Uganda] Nureth Aizenman, A sip of morphine: Uganda’s solution to a shortage of painkillers, NPR, 25 November 2019.

[Uganda] Javira Ssebwami, UPDF airlifts immunization vaccines to hard to read areas, PML Daily, 21 October 2019.

[Uganda] Steve Ariong, Abim locals resport to herbs amid acute drug shortage, Daily Monitor, 7 August 2019.

[Uganda] Anon., State of health: understaffing, drug stockouts cripple services in districts, Daily Monitor, 23 July 2019.

[Uganda] Derek Kissa et al., Drug shortage hits Kawolo as patients double,, 31 May 2019. See also here.

[Uganda] Anon., Finance cuts budget for essential drugs by Shs100b, Daily Monitor, 11 April 2019/

[Uganda] Frederic Musisi, Islanders: trapped left to die on islands, Daily Monitor, 9 April 2019.

[Uganda] Flavia Nassaka, The Septrin controversy, Independent, 11 December 2018.

[Uganda] Joan Salmon, Cancer patients still waiting for drugs, Daily Monitor, 14 November 2018.

[Uganda] Javira Ssebwami, European envoys shocked by Uganda’s health status, PML Daily, 8 November 2018.

[Uganda] Justus Lyatuu, How lack of pharmacists is hurting healthcare, The Observer, 24 October 2018. See also here.

[Uganda] Agnes Kyotalengeirire, Naguru General Hospital receives medical supplies [from China] New Vision, 12 September 2018.

[Uganda] Katie G. Nelson, How Uganda’s new AIDS efforts are leading to a drug shortage, PRI, 7 August 2018.

[Uganda] Reuters, Uganda faces drug shortage in public hospitals, DevDiscourse, 1 August 2018.

[Uganda] Yan, Uganda procues medicines for HIV carriers to address shortage, Xinhua, 17 July 2018.

[Uganda] Brian Luwaga, Kiryandongo Hospital hit by drug shortage after Gaagaa bus accident, Uganda Radio Network, 29 May 2018.

[Uganda] Dinah Matengo, Uganda faces acute shortage of HIV drug, CGTN Africa, 26 May 2018. Also here.

[Uganda] Samuel Okiror, HIV drug shortage puts hundreds of thousands of lives at risk in Uganda, Guardian, 22 May 2018.

[Uganda] Anon., Civil Society to petition Parliament over plans to destroy ‘expired drugs, The Independent, 12 March 2018.

[Uganda] Esther Oluka, How Uganda can fix the problem of drug shortages [grow local industries], Daily Monitor, 29 April 2018.

[Uganda] Lillian Namagembe, Medical interns on strike again over allowance, drug stock outs,, 7 February 2018

[Uganda] Jessica Sabano, residents demand closure of health centre over lack of drugs,, 1 February 2018.

[Uganda] URN, Mental health patients battling ‘cheap’ drugs side effects, Dispatch, 24 December 2017.

[Uganda] URN, Mental health patients battling ‘cheap’ drugs [largactil] side effects, The Observer, 24 December 2017.

[Uganda] Anthony Lam Aybee, NMS builds new warehouse as more drugs come in, Observer, 27 November 2017.

[Uganda] Julius Ocungi, HIV patiens share ARVs as shortage his Lamwo,, 22 November 2017.

[Uganda] Anon., Nebbi district faces [malaria] drug shortage, New Vision, 19 April 2017.

[Uganda] Vivian Agaba, Namuwongo residents decry lack of drugs in KCCA clinic, New Vision, 31 March 2017.

[Uganda] Ali Mambule, Bukeeri faces drug shortage,, 27 January 2017.

[Uganda] Editorial, Find lasting solution to drug shortage,, The Monitor, 16 January 2017.

[Uganda] Ronald Kule, Kasese district grapples with Hepatitis B drug stockout, URN, 6 November 2016.

[Uganda] Francis Emorut, Ogom HcIII hit by drug shortage [malaria], understaffing, New Vision, 7 October 2016.

[Uganda] Fred Wambede, Health workers protest drug shortage,, 5 October 2016.

[Uganda] Moses Okeya, Drug shortage hits Jinja Mental Hospital,, 23 August 2016.

[Uganda]Felix Warom Okello, Drug shortage hits ARua,, 18 August 2016.

[Uganda] Martins E. SSekweyama, Masaka Hospital decrieds drug shortage power outage,, 17 August 2016.

[Uganda] Edward Bindhe, Drug shortage, power outage plunge Masaka Hospital in crisis, URN, 12 August 2016.

[Uganda] Scovia Atuhaire, Drug scarcity hits Fort Portal Referral Hospital,, 10 August 2016.

[Uganda] Martin Kitubi, Drug shortage hits Butakiba Hospital, New Vision, 26 July 2016.

[Uganda] Frank Oyugi, Drug shortage its Lira Referral Hospital, URadioNetwork, 10 June 2016

[Uganda] Ivan Kimbowa, Two health centres implicated in drug theft, all, 27 May 2016.

[Uganda] Julius Ocungi and James Owich, Gulu hit by anti-malaria drug shortage, all, 29 February 2016.

[Uganda] Lisa Laventure, Shortage of HIV drugs looms in Uganda again,, 22 February 2016.

[Uganda] Racheal Ninsiima, Our role stops at delivery, says medcial stores boss,, 12 February 2016.

[Uganda] Ivan Kimbowa, Panic as Sango Bay camp runs out of malarial drugs,, 26 January 2016.

[Uganda] Anon. Reuters. Global fund rushes HIV drugs to Uganda amid shortage, Voice of America, 25 January 2016.

[Uganda] Anon. Uganda facing HIV drugs shortage, Citizen Digital, 16 December 2015.

[Uganda] Juliet Waiswa, CSO call for more HIV/AIDS, TB funding, New Vision, 10 Nvember 2015.

[Uganda] Andrew Ssenyonga,Presidential guards give back to Kisenyi residents, New Vision, 14 October 2015.

[Uganda] Arthur Matsiko, Refugees sell food rations to pay for treatment,, 26 June 2015.

[Uganda] Agnes Nantabi, Pader short of nodding disease drug, New Vision, 7 January 2014.

[Uganda] Raymond Baguma, Health ministry clarifies on ARV drug shortage [blames hospitals and clinics], New Vision, 2 August 2013.

[Uganda] Bill Oketch, Drug shortage hits Amolatar, Daily Monitor, 29 May 2013.

[Uganda] Sarah Tumwebaze, Cancer institute faces drug shortage, Saturday Monitor, 5 March 2013.

[Uganda] Paul Abusharizi, Uganda: Do we really have drug shortage? All Africa, 8 May 2012.

[Zambia] Derek Silimina, Drug shortages in public hospitals in Zambia, D and C, 7 May 2023. See also here

[Zambia] Philip Chisalu, Our borrowing was better, Diggers, 26 September 2022.

[Zambia] Arnold Mulenga, Zambia’s health sector in a coma, CAJ News Africa, 1 April 2022. See also here

[Zambia] Julia Malunga, ZAMMSA, MOH are paralysed, Zambia News Diggers, 21 March 2022.

[Zambia] Brian Muwanei Kabika, India surge in COVID-19 may cause drug shortage in Zambia, The Mast, 30 April 2021

[Zambia] Natasha Sakala, We’re tightening procurement system to curb irregularities at MoH, News Diggers, 15 February 2021. [blames staff for creating artifical shortages]

[Zambia] Julia Malunga, Covid-19 testing reagents in short supply manufacturers have closed, News Diggers, 27 August 2020.

[Zambia] Joshua Jere, Zero tolerance to drug shortages, ZNBC, 8 April 2019.

[Zambia] Anon., No more drug shortages in Luapula-[Health minister] Chilufya, Lusaka Times, 10 August 2018.

[Zambia] Steve Nhlane, 10 Malawi chiefs as tourists in Zambia, Malawi Nyasa Times, 21 July 2018.

[Zambia] Steven Zande, State sources $10M [USD] drugs to stabilise supply, Times of Zambia, 7 August 2017.

[Zambia] Anon., There should be no drug shortages in districts, Health minister [will blame hospital staff], Lusaka Times, 23 January 2017. See also here.

[Zambia] Rebecca Mushota, It’s a lie [Health Minister denies shortages]  Times of Zambia, 21 October 2015.

[Zambia] Mukosha Funga, Donors withhold 30M Euros for drugs, Sunday Post, 19 October 2015.

[Zambia] Mukosha Funga, Poorest to suffer most from shortage of drugs, The Post, 24 August 2015.

[Zambia] Alvin Chinga and Panic Malawo, ‘Drugs shortage artificial, says Kasonde,’ Zambia Daily Mail, 13 February 2015.

[Zambia] Chila Namaiko, Drug shortage hits Macha hospital, 7 February 2015.

[Zambia], APA, Zambian government acts on drug shortage [blames local hospitals], Star Africa, 23 July 2014

[Zambia] Chanda Chimba, Zambia faces shortage of anti-AIDS drugs, Voice of American, 17 August 2013.

[Zimbabwe] Harriet Chikandiwa, Sanctions to blame for drug shortages, Newsday Zimbabwe, 4 December 2023.

[ZImbabwe] Anon., Critical drugs shortage hits Zmim, Zimbabwe Independent, 29 April 2022.

[Zimbabwe] Silisiwe Mabaleka, Byo residents complain over drugs shortage at clinics, Newsday, 21 December 2021.

[Zimbabwe] Lucky Mzimkhulu, Youths boil used sanitary pads [and diapers] for liquid to make drugs, iHarare, 18 March 2021. [hard to believe this]

[Zimbabwe] Anon., ARVs shortage hits Bulawayo,, 26 January 2021.

[ZImbabwe] Anon., ARV shortage hits ZImbabwe, Bulawayo News, 24 November 2020.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Zimbabwe faces shortage of critical medical drug [rifabutin for TB], ZW News, 3 October 2020. See also here  here and here.

[Zimbabwe] LeRoy Dzenga et al., Natpharm allays ARVs shortage fears,, 31 August 2020.

[Zimbabwe] Munyaradzi Makoni, COVID-19 worsens Zimbabwe’s health crisis, Lancet, 13 August 2020.

[Zimbabwe] Thandeka Moyo-Ndlovu, Nation wide shortage of ARVs, Chronicle, 25 June 2020. See also here

[Zimbabwe] Anon., ZACC probes drug thefts at hospitals, The Herald, 20 January 2020.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., We are doing right by our HIV and AIDS paitnets, Pindula News, 25 December 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Govt must prioritize people/s health, Daily News Live, 20 October 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Patrick Chitumba, Child prostitution surges in farming communities, The Chronicle, 5 October 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Anon. [Nyadire Misson hospital lacks drugs],, 25 September 2019.

[ZImbabwe] Beaven Dhliwayo, Implications of antiretroviral drug shortage, Herald, 24 September 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Anon. Natpharm stocking millions of expired drugs as nation reels from drugs shortage, ZimEye, 16 September 2019. See also here.

[Zimbabwe] Veneranda Langa et al., Govt urged ot provide forex for medicine procurement, Newsday, 8 September 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., STI drug shortages[for HIV]  hits Mashonaland East,, 5 September 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Bridget Mananavire, Health sector donors demand transparency, Zimbabwe Independent, 9 August 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Doctors accused of stealing drugs from gov’t hospitals, [Anticrruption Trust of Southern Africa], Pindula, 26 July 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., As hospitals are hit by drug shortage, Minister of Health releases medicines for ZANU PF rallies, 13 July 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., UN allays Zimbabwe’s ARV shortage fears, Bulawayo 24, 10 July 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Robert Tapfumaneyi, HIV/AIDS activists demand end to drug shortage, expired drug distribution, New Zimbabwe, 5 July 2019. See also here.

[Zimbabwe] Masvingo, Govt urged to support local pharmaceutical companies, All Africa, 25 June 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Lisa Tazviinga, Agony of chronic patients amid drug price madness,, 21 June 2019

[Zimbabwe] Columbus Mavhunga, UNAIDS office visits Zimbabwe amid moderate drug shortage, Voice of America, 14 June 2019.

[Zimbabwe], Veneranda Langa et al. We have enough HIV drugs, NewsDay, 11 June 2019. See also here and here.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Mash West hit by ARVs, antibiotic shortages, News Day, 6 June 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Editorial. Allocate more forex to health services, Daily News, 21 May 2019.

[ZImbabwe] Anon., Auxillia Mnangagwa attacks Natpharm for drug shortage at clinics, ZImEye, 2 May 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Health minister in shock revelation that his ministry is not supplying Matabeleland with drugs and medication, ZimEye, 29 April 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Govt probes drug leakages, Bulawayo 24 News, 7 April 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Clayton Masekesa, Hunger, drug shortages strike Mutare remand prison, Nehanda Radio, 26 March 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Nokuthaba Nkomo, HIV PEP drug shortage hits hospitals, Nehanda Radio, 26 March 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Sharon Buwerimre, Natpharm to fast-track drugs procurement, Chronicle, March 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Tafadzwa Muranganwa, Govt fight against HIV/AIDS under threat over looming drug shortages, RadioVOP Zimbabwe, 19 February 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Nqobani Ndlovu et al., Bulawayo runs out of birth control pills, NewsDay, 10 January 2019.

[Zimbabwe] Jacob Mafume, “Expired” leadership exposing citizens to expired drugs, Nehanda Radio, 30 December 2018.

[Zimbabwe]  Fungai Chimbindi, Drug shortages worsen as Drs strike continues, Mail and Telegraph, 10 December 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Mandla Ndlovu, Government to solve shortage of medicine [will create pharmacies], Bulawayo24 News, 14 December 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Faith Zaba, Govt must prioritize the health of the nation [docs protest shortages], The Independent, 7 December 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Patrick Chitumba, indigenous company help fight drug shortages, The Herald, 7 December 108.

[ZImbabwe] Anon., Govt must address key issues behind doctors’ strike, Bulawayo 24 News, 4 December 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Mnangagwa extends begging bowl to avert drug shortages, Mail and Telegraph, 16 November 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Cancer patients hit by morphine shortages, NewsDze, 11 November 2018

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Gov’t quashes Magaya’s HIV/AIDS cure claims, Zim Eye, 29 October 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Is he telling the truth? Mnangagwa says drug shortage to end, ZimEye, 27 October 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Anon. Harare Central Hospital in Intensive Care, Bulawayo News 24, 23 October 2018. See also here.

[Zimbabwe] Desmond Chingarande, Drug imports cut over debt, News Day, 22 October 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Blessings Mashaya et al. Drug crisis takes its toll, Daily News, 22 October 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Drug prices skyrocket, The Herald, 17 October 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Thupeyo Muleya, Drug shortages hit clinics, The Herald, 15 October 2018. See also here, here, and here.

[Zimbabwe] Thandeka Moyo, Government avails US$7 Million for drugs, Chronicle, 13 October 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Anon. Drug, staff shortages hit Mutare Prov Hospital, ZBA online, 11 October 2018.

[Zimbabwe] AP, Zimbabwe faces worst economic crisis in a decade, News 24, 10 October 2018. See also here and here.

[Zimbabwe] Andrew Kunambura, Zim runs out of health drugs, The Zimbabwe Independent, 5 October 2018. See also Candid Comment, here, and here.

[Zimbabwe] Robert, Kitwe Hospital needs rehab, ZNBC, 8 September 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Veneranda Langa, Govt blasted over TB drugs shortage, News Day, 8 September 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Anon. Massive drug shortage hits Zimbabwe, Bulawayo News, 2 September 2018. See also here, here.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Zim hit by TB drug shortage, 263 Chat, 24 August 2018. See also here and here.

[Zimbabwe] Anon, Zanu PF has reduced hospitals to death traps, Nehanda Radio, 12 July 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Anon. [govt promise to encourage drug manufacturing], Herald, 6 July 2018.

[Zimbabwe[ Desmond Chingarande, HIV/Aids patients at risk as crucial drug expires, Newsday, 30 April 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Farayi Machamire, Nurses to go on strike, Daily News Live, 14 April 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Starvation and drug shortages continue in prisons,, 2 April 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., STI drugs shortage hits Marondera, New Zimbabwe, 29 March 2018. See also here.

[Zimbabwe] Thandeke Moyo, Ministry allays drug shortage fears, The Chronicle, 21 March 2018

[Zimbabwe] Editorial, Gov’t must prioritse crucial [HIV] drugs supply, Herald, 14 March 2018.

[Zimbabwe] John Katchembere, PSMAS mulls venturing into pharmaceuticals, Nehanda Radio, 12 March 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Tarisai Machakaire, Hospitals run out of oxygen, Nehanda Radio, 26 February 2018. See also here.

[Zimbabwe] Helen Kadirire, Mental illness drugs in short supply Daily News, 19 Feb 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Phyllis Mbanje, A family’s fatal encounter with drug shortages [insulin], News Day, 13 February 2018

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Critical drugs shortage blamed of forex [foreign exchange], Bulawayo 24 News, 28 January 2018.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Critical shortage of drugs looming, Zimbabwe Mail, 23 December 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Andrew Kunanmbura, Critical shortage of drugs looming, Daily News, 23 December 2017

[Zimbabwe] Nqobile Tshili, UBH nurses in demo over drug shortages, The Chronicle, 13 December 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Hazvinei Mwanaka, Govt allays ARVs shortage fears, News Day, 9 October 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Abigail Mawonde, Consider manufacturing ARVs locally, gov’t told, Herald, 29 September 2017. See also here.

[Zimbabwe] Bridget Mananavire, Zimdoctors threaten to strike, Daily News, 26 September 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Runyararo Muzavazi, ARV shortage sparks fears of drug resistant HIV strains, The Herald, 19 Sptember 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Long-term solutions crucial for Zimcrises, Daily News, 15 September 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Andrew Kunambura, Drug prices soar, Daily News, 14 September 2017. See also here and here.

[Zimbabwe] Editorial, Produce generic HIV drugs instead of importing, NewsDay, 29 August 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Munyaradzi Musiiwa, Govt allys ARVs shortage fears, Chronicle, 29 August 2017. See also here.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Zim facing critical second line HIV drug shortage, Daily News, 28 August 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Editorial, ARV shortage: a stitch in time saves nine, Herald, 23 August 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Paidamoyo Chipunza, ARVs shortage in hospitals, Chronicle, 22 August 2017. See also here.

[Zimbabwe] Whinsley Masara, Dad hammers year-old daughter to death after 5 day fast [shortage of mental health drugs], Chronicle, 16 August 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Bridget Mananavire, Health levy to stem drug shortages [5% on airtime], Daily News, 11 July 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Anon. Expensive equipment gathering dust at govt hospitals, Newsdzezimbabwe, 26 June 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Farayi Machamire, Slow gov’t procurement worsening drug shortages, Daily News, 18 March 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Silence Charumbira et al. Mental health drugs shortage hits Mash[aland] West, News Day, & March 2016.

[Zimbabwe] Veneranda Langa, Forex shortage hits chronic drug supply, NewsDay, 16 February 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Anon. As Mugabees blow $6M on holiday, Zim runs out of crucial drug [atracurium], NewsdzeZimbabwe, 15 January 2017. See also Helen Kadirire and letter both in Daily News.

[Zimbabwe] Anon. Mugabe blows $6M as Zim hospitals crumble without drugs, ZimEye, 15 January 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Drug shortage saga deepens, Daily News, 15 January 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Essential drugs shortage looms, NewsDay Zimbabwe, 14 January 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Phyllis Mbanje, Drugs shortage spawns TB fears [lack of BCG], News Day, 7 January 2017.

[Zimbabwe] Bridget Mananavire, Drug shortages hit psychiatric prisoners, Daily News, 22 October 2016.

[Zimbabwe] Anon. Major hospital suspends elective surgeries due to drug shortage [pethidine], Global Times, 18 October 2016. See also and here and here.

[Zimbabwe] Nqobile Tshili, Mpilo hit by drug shortages, The Chronicle,  4 October 2016. See also.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Drug Shortages: Government blames hospital administrators,, 21 September 2016.

[Zimbabwe] Ismail Akwe, Zimbabwe’s major hospital faces drug shortage [sugery suspended], Africa News, 19 September 2016. See also.

[Zimbabwe] Editorial, Drug shortages spell doom, NewsDay, 19 September 2016.

[Zimbabwe] Pamela Shumba, Mayhem rules–suicides, nurses beaten at ingutsheni as sedative drugs run out, Chronicle, 11 August 2016.

[Zimbabwe] Anon. Serious drug shortage hits Marondera Hospital, New Zimbabwe, 25 July 2016.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Drug shortage looms,, 2 June 2016

[Zimbabwe] Health Reporter, Health sector needs 65M for drugs, The Herald, 10 May 2016.

[Zimbabwe] Silence Charumbira et al. Mental health drugs shortage hits Mash[onland] West, News Day, 7 March 2016.

[Zimbabwe] Business Editor, Global pharamceutical firm [GSK] dumps Zim[babwe], Daily News, 18 February 2016.

[Zimbabwe] Terence Mawawa, Death scare, shortage of drugs hits Masvingo Hospital, ZimEye, 12 February 2016.

[Zimbabwe], Paidamo Chipunza, Hospital chief in car scandal. Prioritizes new vehicle over drugs, The Herald, 25 January 2016.

[Zimbabwe] Nqobile Tshili, Mpilo, UBH battle to recover $23M, The Chronicle, 22 January 2016.

[Zimbabwe] Paidamo Chipunza, Shortage of drugs hits hospitals, The Chronicle, 20 January 2016. Also 21 January 2016.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Drug shortages continue to haunt Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Daily, 18 January 2016.

[Zimbabwe] Anon., Zim hit with massive drug shortage, The Zimbabwe Independent, 15 May 2015.

[Zimbabwe] Tendai Makripe, Zimbabwe: poor health delivery [epilepsy drugs], All 7 May 2015.

[Zimbabwe] Tonderaye Matonho, Under-threat medicinal plants panacea to drug shortages, NewsDay Zimbabwe, 1 October 2014.

[Zimbabwe] Anon. Shortage of epilepsy drugs in Zimbabwe, IRIN Africa, 11 August 2014.

[Zimbabwe] Staff reporter, Cash crisis: hospitals battle drug shortages, New Zimbabwe, 17 July 2014.

[Zimbabwe] Anon. Zimbabwe: Masvingo runs out of drugs, All Africa, 28 September 2013.

[Zimbabwe] Tawanda Majoni, Essential drugs shortage found with mobile data gathering, Key Correspondents, 6 March 2012